About Flora & Fauna


The Amazon basin is characterized by the largest expanse of tropical rainforest and one of the main sources of biodiversity. The region is home to countless species of insects, plants and animals interacting in a coordinated and balanced manner.


The effect of the tides of the Atlantic at the mouth of the Amazon is at its highest level with the phenomenon called Pororoca. “Pororóká” in Tupi Guarani language, means – loud bang – This term is used to describe the penetration of Atlantic waters in the channel of the Amazon River during the time of high tide or flow. The Pororoca is more intense when the river flow are less, so the Atlantic ocean waters can penetrate more easily and with greater speed and length in the channels of the delta of the river, which gives rise to a flood that filled with salt water many coastal areas.

The Amazonian freshwater causes the seawater forming waves break over them, which translates into strong opposition from both opposition that is causing the noise and the name of the phenomenon. For this phenomenon to occur, they have to attend several factors: the phases of moon or new moon, which give way to the rise of the strongest tides, ocean currents and the opposition over the River Ocean.


The Amazon basin is regarded as having the greatest plant diversity on the planet. It described some 30,000 different species, representing one third of all species of South America. Most plant species that inhabit the floodplains are unique and are limited to this system.

Also, few lowland species also exist in the highlands, which contributes to increasing the diversity of the Amazon flora in jungle trips.

Factors that influence the distribution of these plants and the composition of their communities deal with the geology and characteristics of rivers that bathe. The floodplains of the rivers of “white water”, for example, differ markedly from those of “black water” in both species composition and the size of them. The first generating higher forests, perhaps because of the greater amount of nutrients carried by rivers, compared to rivers in nutrient poor “black water”.

Existing floodplain species are specially adapted to survive long periods underwater. This partly explains the marked differences in these plants with relatives of the regions high. No one knows for sure the total number of plant species in the Amazon floodplain. One approach, nothing exaggerated, leads us to estimate that there are at least 5,000 plant species or riparian floodplain, with the actual figure certainly superior with manu jungle trips.

Found in the Amazon rainforest species of larger trees in the world, as the “Lupuna” that can reach over 50 feet high. We also find a variety of trees whose wood is so durable and luxurious, they have earned the top spot acceptance in national and international local timber industry, causing overexploitation and not just putting them in danger, but also the ecosystems that house. Mahogany, cedar and screw, are some of them. Special mention should be made of trees and medicinal plants, traditionally used by Amazonian peoples to fight the evils facing them. The variety and species richness are endless, but here mention the Chuchuhuasi, Sangre de Drago, Copaiba, ABUTA Ayahuma and nutrients, either on land or in water, (Chorisia integrifolia) (Swietenia macrophylla) (Cedrela odorata) (Cedrelinga catenaeformis) (Maytenus macrocarpa) (Croton lechleri​​) amasisa (Erythrina fusca) (Copaifera paupera) (Couroupita guianensis) (ABUTA grandifolia).

Unlike trees, most aquatic weeds require high levels to survive. Many float freely on the surface and, in the case of certain aquatic plants are able to detach from the substrate when the depth of water increases significantly (avoiding choking). The buoyancy, of course, is the adaptation that allows these plants to handle changing water levels, and to achieve considerable success in its natural dispersion. One of the plant communities with greater expansion in recent years has been the herbaceous.

This is due in part to the increasing deforestation of the banks. When the forest is cut, the light varies, allowing this type of plant colonization of new areas.


The largest animal group in the Amazon is the bird. The Amazon basin is the hostel over 1300 species of birds, making the great valley of the Amazon the richest region of the Earth in this animal group. Only in Peru have been reported to Amazon level a total of 806 species of birds. At least a third of these species live or visit seasonally floodplains. The need to migrate from North America and the southern tip of South America, as well as seasonal migrants who spend the year between the flooded forest and offshore areas.

The existence of such a large number of species in the Amazon basin responds directly to the characteristics of the natural environment they inhabit (flooded forests, upland forests, primary or secondary forests, etc). Because of the particulars of each of these areas features bird species that inhabit have developed a degree of expertise that allows them to survive and compete with other species. When these conditions are very particular, require the wildlife that depends on it a number of special adaptations to their environment, and in some cases, species habitat exclusively restricted to these special areas. That is when we speak of “endemic”. Are these endemic species which undergo further changes brought around by environmental degradation.

One example of specialized birds in the simultaneous use of these two environments is that of parrots and macaws. Blue and Yellow Macaw, for example, nests in the marshes (Ara ararauna) aguaje dominated by palms (Mauritia flexuosa), locally called “aguajales” located within the floodplain. During the day these birds fly to the riverbanks and close to feed on fruits and seeds forest. Their flights become one of the most impressive performances of the Amazon, since, to the contemplation of the bright colors of their feathers, the deafening noise of their croaking joins powerful.

At dusk, the birds return to their nests in aguajales or in the highland forest for the night. The reason for sleeping and eating in different and distant places, we avoid predators, making it, in one of the most unique evasion strategies of the Amazon ecosystem. Additionally, morbidity allows them to move from one forest type to another depending on the availability of fruits and seeds. An interesting fact is that its ecology are played when the floodplain forests are in full fruit, ie, during the growing season. It is perhaps why they are so frequent on the flooded forest. Macaws made ​​two to three trips per day in order to feed their chicks, safe in the security of the marshes.

In Amazonia find also numerous bird species whose main habitat is the river banks. All these species now face the serious threat of massive lowland rainforest deforestation and hunting.

Herons are undoubtedly the most frequent and abundant along the lowlands of the Amazon basin birds. In the dry season they congregate in large numbers in streams and lakes, where fish abundance is considerable, being a fabulous show, starring the white color of their feathers and their bodies splash the water.


One of the most spectacular birds of the Amazon is the world’s smallest. Hummingbirds are known for their small size, but also for his incredible agility and skill in flight. They are endowed with a muscular build and a series of bone adaptations that allow a splendid flight maneuverability. They are the only birds that can remain static in the air and can fly forward or backward. The Hummingbird can reach a cruising speed of 45 mph and movement of wings can range from 70 to 80 wingbeats per second in the smaller, 10 to 15 wingbeats per second in the largest species species. In smaller species your heart reaches 500 or 600 beats per minute when at rest, and can reach 1000 beats per minute when active. This activity is a great expenditure of energy. Hummingbirds can consume up to five times their body weight daily. That is why more than 15% of their time feeding and consume 75% resting or digesting.

One of the most peculiar birds in the Amazon is the hoatzin. This species rarely leaves the floodplain and is likely to have evolved along with it over time. The hoatzin inhabits the shores of lakes and rivers of “black water”. One of its peculiarities is the sum of anatomical adaptations that boasts. Chicks, for example, have a sort of “nails or spurs” on the wings, similar to Archaepteryx way, the best known fossil bird, allowing them to climb the branches and return to their nests after he jumped into the water as a means to escape predators. Upon reaching adulthood, the “spurs” atrophy and lack of some function. Another shansho singularities is its dual esophagus (similar to ruminants), designed to allow the bird to ferment large amounts of leaves, flowers and fruits to facilitate further digestion. The shanshos can be easily seen and heard on the edges of watercourses lowland rainforest; their rude nests, however, are always located in branches of trees along the river.