AMAZON TRAVELS – Manu Jungle Trips : To get a full picture of how the amazon travels ecosystem came into being let’s look at its history. How were past conditions different I how did all the diversity come about How long did it take Scientists believe that parts of the amazon travels are ancient, hardly changed in 100 million years; as the rainforest’s living fossils testify. We see evolution’s fantastic tapestry, woven from billions of threads .plants, animals, decomposers and all their relationships. The origin of this complexity is in the forest’s beginning. When dinosaurs roamed the earth, over 220 million years ago, a huge river I lowed west across what is now South America, into the Pacific. At that time, Southern continents were joined, like pieces of a jigsaw, in a super-continent called Gondwanaland in amazon travels with manu national park.
According to the theory of plate tectonics, continents and ocean floors form gigantic rocky rafts, or plates, that are moved by convection forces in the planet’s interior. Sudden earthquakes and dramatic volcanic eruptions mark their boundaries as the plates bump and collide sliding over, under or around each other. But the plates move extremely slowly. During our lifetime, a continent moves only three meters or so. Yet speed this up, and the landmasses wander and pirouette across the globe by about 150 million years ago, South America had become a huge island isolated from neighboring landmasses. The continent’s isolation had profound effects on its fauna. Primitive mammals, notably marsupials and edentates, proceeded to evolve in niches elsewhere occupied by more successful placental mammals in jungle.
All the marsupials of the Americas are now extinct except opossums, while the last surviving edentates are sloths, armadillos and anteaters. About 15 million years ago, tectonic movement caused huge eruptions and earthquakes all along the continent’s west coast as the Pacific and South American plates collided. Pushing against each other, the Pacific Plate was forced downwards while the South American Plate crumpled upwards. The Andes began to rise (and continue to do so) and during the Pliocene epoch – between 5.3 and 1.6 million years ago – blocked the westward-flowing river and so created a huge inland lake, the biggest ever. Marine animals were now trapped in a freshwater environment. Some adapted and remain to this day. Hence, the rivers are home to freshwater sting-rays and dolphins, and other animals normally found only in marine environments .Around 5 million years ago, South America joined North America, forming the panama Isthmus.
Ocean currents changed and climate patterns altered. PLuctil.il mammals invaded southwards leading to the extinction of many of the previously Isolated primitive mammals. Some 1.6 million years ago, tectonic movement the entire South American Plate, and the river flowed east, in its present direction into the Atlantic Over time the highlands on the basin’s edges eroded. As sand and mud collected the underlying rock sank under the weight and yet more silt piled on the di pi mil built up over millions of years when the area was an inland lake. Immensely alluvial deposits fill the vast network of ancient valleys that comprise the present day river system – in theamazon travels, you’re on a pile of mud 4km deep The last great geological events to sculpt the lowland landscapes were the ice ages, the most recent of which ended 10,000 years ago.
The sea-level was 30m or more lower than today, causing the river to run much faster. Huge torrents cut deep channels in the mud, leaving hills and rises as the sea level dropped primordial floods, the high banks your boat sails past are above today highest flood levels. Beyond the reach of seasonal flooding, the forests on firm ground m terra firme forests, are quite different from the vdrzea forest found in flooded an areas Geography of the Amazon Peru: flat, flooded and forested With a shallow gradient along its course, gravity means that the amazon travels barely From Iquitos to the mouth, the river drops by a mere 70m, a gradient of 1 in 50,000 Basically flat! The entire area’s hydrology ultimately depend * tin snowfall in the Andes in amazon travels in Peru.
Sunlight warms lofty peaks. From on high, huge quantities of thawed snow rush downhill on a long journey to the sea causing the lowland river levels to rise dramatically. According to Michael Goulding, author of Amazon: The Flooded forest about 2% of the amazon travels watershed is under water during seasonal floods. A mi hill portion, but it adds habitat variety and hence species diversity in jungle trips.
Water is the amazon travels life-blood. Rivers annually deposit nutrient-laden silt fertilize vast lowland areas. The enriched soils can support some agriculture and enhance the growth of natural vegetation. With every season’s flood, the flow of the river changes. Where the flow is diverted, the river leaves behind ox-bow lakes and newly formed land. New channels create ‘edge’ habitat essential for certain wildlife Strong currents during annual floods or heavy rains scour weed-clogged streams and lakes. The river itself is a natural corridor along which animals migrate, be tin y fish, birds, or even small mammals, on floating rafts of dislodged vegetation in jungle.
Floods speed up erosion and deposition. Without large rocky areas, a lowland river’s course is unstable. On the rivers outside curve the current runs faster eroding the bank and eating up to 30m of forest a year. Where the riverbank has collapsed trees lie askew in the river, a tangle of trunks and vines, ready to be swept away by the current. On the inside bend, the current slows, dropping silt, floating vegetation and anything else carried by the water. The inner banks grow, become exposed when waters recede, and new land is created. As the process of erosion and deposition continues, year on year, the meanders of the river make then wav downstream, picking sediment up from the outside of one bend and depositing II on the inside of another, further downstream .The process overall is a complex ‘shifting mosaic’ of innumerable islands, w bow lakes, rivers, streams and sand bars – a wide variety of habitats for plains animals in jungle trips.
The constant change of occasional disturbance through seasonal flooding creates conditions that promote speciation Some 2,960km from north to south, the amazon travels Basin’s outer margins comprise montane forest to the west and dry grasslands to the north and south The vast, flat interior is mostly covered in dense tropical rainforest across which giant rivers gently wind thousands of miles undiscovered until 1953, the source of the amazon travels is high in the Peruvian Andes around 160km from the Pacific .Waters gather and merge until they meet the westernmost major tributary, the Ucayali. About 100km of Iquitos in Peru, this joins the mainstream, now called the Solimoes by Brazilians – andamazon travels by Peruvians. It is then another 3,720km from Iquitos in die mouth at Belem; the world’s longest stretch of navigable river.
AMAZON TRAVELS – MANU JUNGLE TRIPS
The amazon travels in Peru has an area of over 1 ’285,216 km2 and, contrary to popular belief, 74.5 % (956,751 km2) is located in the Amazon Basin (hydrographical area). We would be correct then in saying that Peru is an Amazonian country amazon travels River Basin, the largest on the planet, covers a surface area of 6’430,000 km2 encompassing parts of Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana and Venezuela The Peruvian amazon travels is traditionally divided into two distinct eco-regions that have been studied: the highland rainforest, with an altitude ranging between 400 and 1000 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.). and the lowland rainforest of between 80 and 400 m.a.s.l.
The highland rainforest is also called Rupa Rupa. It is located on the eastern slopes of the Andes mountain range with very uneven topographical relief and mountains covered by vegetation. The lowland rainforest, or Omagua, is less steep and more even, dotted with lagoons, rivers, oxbow lakes and marshes – Jungle Trips Peru.
During the rainy season it overflows its banks and floods a large area of the lower lying zones amazon travels Basin extends quite high up to the tree line on the eastern slope however, into an area known as the Ceja de Selva (Jungle’s Eyebrow), with altitudes that vary between 1000 and 3900 m.a.s.l. It is an extensive area, full of vegetation (tropical rainforests) and its climate is warm during the day (over 20 degrees Celsius), dropping considerably at night to around 10 degrees It is a zone covered by clouds during most of the year and due to its great humidity there is a constant drip of water that keeps the vegetation and soil moist and the vegetation permanently green. Machu Picchu is the best example found in this region In summary, the climate of the whole amazon travels Basin is warm and tropical, with high relative humidity and abundant rainfall – Jungle Trips Peru.