AMAZON WILDLIFE MAMMALS – MANU NATIONAL PARK: The present study aimed to determine the biodiversity of mammals in the Manu National Park Wayqecha Biological Station, analyze the altitudinal distribution and conservation status of mammals in a gradient between 1250-3600 m asl in the upper valley of K’osñipata during the dry season (June-July 2007). The study area included four locations: San Pedro, where assessments were made between 1250 and 1500 m altitude; Rocotal, where assessments were conducted between 1950-2200 m; a first site between 2550 to 2900m and a second site between 3450-3600 m within the Manu National Park: and Wayqecha, where two study sites were located In Amazon Wildlife – Manu.
For the study, mammals were grouped into two groups: small mammals and flightless flying with less than 999 gr and large mammals that have a higher weight and equal weight to LKG. To catch small flying mammals mist nets were used and for non-flying small mammals snap traps and pitfall traps were used. To determine the presence of large mammals direct observation techniques, search for traces and interviews with locals people leave in to Amazon Wildlife Mammals The results show that in the Research Center Wayqecha there are at least 32 species of mammals belonging to six orders, 14 families and 26 genera; pemigra Didelphis, Monodelphis osgoodi, Leopardus wankers, Leopardus Jacobite, and Calomys antisensis Hippocamelus sorellus: while in the Valley Kosñipata 62 species, of which six are new records were recorded. According to the altitudinal distribution of mammals, the greatest diversity is found in lowland areas and decreases as we move up the altitudinal gradient; but in the event of diversity of terrestrial small mammals (marsupials and rodents) presented the highest richness at intermediate elevationsin amazon Of the 62 mammal species recorded for Kosñipata Valley, fifteen species are under some threat to national or international, are endemic to the Montane Forest and 3 are endemic to Peru. in the natural reserve of Manu National Park
AMAZON WILDLIFE MAMMMALS
As a group, rainforest mammals tend to be secretive and mostly nocturnal, making it a challenge to see them well. Unlike the game herds of the African savannas, rainforest mammals do not stand out in the open for easy viewing, but rather live in the canopy or over the forest floor. The animals are there, but finding them is difficult. Most neo tropical animals aren’t large and are hidden in the vegetation. Be patient
AMAZON WILDLIFE MAMMMALS OPOSSUMS (MARSUPIALIA : Most people associate marsupials: the kangaroos, wallabies, wombats with Australia. South America boasted a diverse marsupial community in the past. Today, though there are many species of opossums living in the Neo tropics, which is now mostly extinct. Opossums are small (15 – 2000 g) mammals, with pointed snouts, short legs, long tails, and usually soft, dense fur. They have good sense of sight and hearing. Opossums are good tree climbers. The first toe of the hind foot is widely separated from the other digits, forming an opposable “thumb” used to grasp thin stems for climbing. The tail of most species is strongly prehensile, and even its extreme tip can tightly grip an object as thin as wire, with many times the force needed to support the weight of the body. Some species will hang suspended only by the tail to reach fruit. All the teeth behind the canines are sharply pointed. Its most unique behavior, “playing opossum” is an act that feigns death when the animal is threatened. Most are nocturnal and they have bright eye Shine; the eyes appear small and far apart. The diet of opossums is insects and other invertebrates, small vertebrates, and some ripe fruit and nectar, one species, the Water Opossum (Chironectes minimus) eats fish. All species give birth after a short gestation to tiny young that crawl up to the mother’s fur and attach by the mouth to a nipple, where they remain fastened for several weeks, until they are too large for the mother to carry them easily. The mother can abort the young’s if there is lack of food. The young of some species are protected within a pouch (marsupium) while they attached to the nipples, but
Suggest that opossums rarely live for more than one breeding season after they become adult , The familiar American opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) or “Muca” has hardly changed in appearance from its ancestors who roamed the planet 65 million years. Superficially rat like, this big mostly terrestrial opossum with pointed snout and scaly hairless tail, weights between 0.5 to 1.6 kg and has coarse fur, its head color is dirty yellow. It hisses with open mouth when cornered, it can be aggressive and bite.
For other opossum species use the checklist and consult with your guide.
AMAZON WILDLIFE MAMMMALS – ANTEATERS, SLOTHS, AID ARMADILLOS ARMADILLO)
This order (sometimes called Edentata, which means no teeth) includes three families of mammals so dissimilar externally that they hardly appear related. The characteristics that unite them include simple peg like teeth (when teeth are present), and no others. They are the last living remnants of a large group of species that evolved in South America when it was an isolated island continent. Most living members of this order are specialized feeders that eat mainly ants and termites, or rainforest canopy leaves.
AMAZON WILDLIFE MAMMMALS – ANTEATERS (MYRMECOPHAGIDAE)
These true anteaters have no teeth; they have long, tube-like snouts and small eyes and ears. The tongue can be greatly extended to reach into inaccessible crevices and is covered with sticky saliva which traps insects. The powerful curved front claws are folded inward, and they walk on the outside of the hand, which has a thickened pad. The arboreal species have strong prehensile tails. These animals feed on social insects (ants, termites, bees), which they localize by smell. Their anatomy is specialized for opening the nests of their prey and licking up the occupants. Anteaters have very low metabolism, – they can sleep 14 or 15 hours daily. Anteaters give birth to a single young, (the gestation is 6 months), which rides on the mother’s back, clinging tightly to her fur when she travels.
Because she has no teeth or fingers, the mother cannot pick up her young; it must crawl up onto her back by itself. All anteater species are restricted to the New World tropics and subtropics
AMAZON WILDLIFE MAMMMALS – AGIANT ANTEATER (MYRMEICOPHAGA TRIDACTYLA )
Weight 22 – 39 kg, lenght of body 1,000 – 1,900 cm and tail up to 1 m.
These solitary and strictly terrestrial animals can be diurnal or nocturnal. Giant anteaters travel widely and feed from many ant colonies in a day, taking a few ants from each. They might eat up to 30,000 ants in one day, but only about 150 from each nest, because the ants might attract or hide inside the nest, if it stays too long. Normally they walk or amble along, but when needed they can move with surprising speed. They have a keen sense of smell, which is used to find prey. Giant anteaters are normally harmless, but if
Attacked they may rear up on the hind legs and slash and grasp with the muscled and armed forelegs; they can kill large enemies. It has been known to find a giant anteater and jaguar in a death embrace. The best way to identify a Giant Anteater from a distance is its long, thick and very shaggy tail. They are rare in rainforest; more common and easy to see in grasslands with many ant mounds. They can live up to 26 years old in captivity
AMAZON WILDLIFE MAMMMALS – SOUTHERN TAMANDU : Weight 3.5 -8.5 kg lenht of body 550 – 900 cm
These anteaters are both terrestrial and arboreal and also solitary they feed mainly on ants, termites and bees extracted after ripping apart noisily their nests with the fore claws. Sound of tearing wood at night almost always lead to a tamandua. Tamanduas are highly arboreal and thus have prehensile tails. They move slowly and awkwardly on the ground and see poorly. Tamanduas feeds more on ants at rainy season and change their diet to termites during dry season, because they are jucier. When alarmed they stand upright on their hind legs, raise the nose to sniff, then climb a tree or amble away. When attacked or cornered they rear up and slash with the fore claws and can inflict serious wounds. They are widespread, always present in rainforest, but usually uncommon
AMAZON WILDLIFE MAMMMALS -SILKY OR PYGMY ANTEATER (CYCLOPES DIDACTYLUS)
Weight 150 – 280 g, length of body 155 – 200 mm. These small anteaters are strictly nocturnal and arboreal, feeding mainly on ants, but also on other insects. Silky anteaters travel and feed above the ground on small stems and lianas. They are beautiful tiny golden anteaters; several of its local names translate to “little angel”. Their status is unknown. These animals are rarely seen but may not be uncommon.
AMAZON WILDLIFE MAMMMALS -SLOTHS (BRADYPODIDAE, MEGALONYCHIDAE)
Sloths have long limbs, short bodies, and stumpy tails. To accommodate their upside-down lifestyle, the fur grown from the belly toward the back, thus letting the rain water drains easily off. Their hair has microscopic grooves and notches which provide a home for greenish algae that helps camouflage the fur among the canopy leaves. Their silence, immobility, and camouflaged fur make sloths extremely difficult to see from the ground, and they are usually much more common than they seem. The head can rotate over 270 degrees.
They feed chiefly on forest canopy leaves, which they digest by bacterial fermentation in a many-chambered stomach. Feeding on leaves does not give much energy, so sloths have an extraordinary low metabolic rate. The two-toed sloths might have a body temperature as low as 24° c. They try to locate tender leaves and place themselves in the sun light, otherwise their digestion might slow down so drastically that they could starve with a full stomach. Sloths move slowly and not far, and they spend much time rest. They need 4 minutes for every meter they move. Their feet have no free toes, but two or three long, curved claws, that form a hook by which sloths can hang passively from a branch or clasp objects against the palm with a pincer like grip. They have very bad sight and smell, it is just enough to locate their food of the sloth population are females. The single young spends its first 6 to 9 months clinging to its mother, usually to her chest. Eagles, especially the Harpy eagle, prey on them extensively, as do jaguars in some localities. But they can survive easily from bad bites and the wounds heal quickly.
Recent studies suggest that the genera of sloths are only distantly related: the two-toed sloths belong to the family of the giant ground sloths (Megalonychidae), which can have a height of 6 mt. and starting to become extinct only within the past few thousand years, perhaps due to hunting pressure by humans. While the three-toed sloths belong to the Bradypodidae (where the two-toed sloths were formerly placed sloths are restricted to new world Amazon Wildlife Mammals or Amazon Field Birds.