Biotic of the Manu Park

Biotic of the Manu Park: Threats to biodiversity outpace the resources of the conservation community and necessitate careful prioritization of conservation actions. I suggest that targeting the regions where biogeographic assemblages intersect—“biogeographic crossroads”—is a strategy that may achieve significant conservation economy by focusing on areas that satisfy many conservation criteria. I used a combination of data on Scarabaeine beetles in Bolivia and on other taxa and locations from the literature to consider the short- and long-term benefits of conserving these biogeographic crossroads. Biogeographic crossroads are areas of high species richness and beta diversity, often across many taxonomic groups. They are also regions where representativeness can be achieved with relative efficiency. Recent evidence that ecotones may be loci of evolution suggests that evolutionary processes such as speciation and coevolution may be conserved at biogeographic crossroads. Biogeographic crossroads appear to be areas of high conservation priority and opportunity in both the short and long term and require increased attention in the process of setting conservation priorities.


Tours in Biotic of the Manu National Park and Jungle Trips and Sandoval Lake and Tambopata tours.


covering an extraordinary geography. Manu Biosphere Reserve encompasses a series of distinct biotic regions that range from over 13.7OO feet (4,020 meters) in height down to lowland tropical rainforest only 1.2O0 feet (365 meters) above sea level Between snow line and 11.5OO feet (3.500 meters) lies the Puna, a tundra-like area characterized by pale yellow ichu grass. Isolated blue lakes. tassel-eared llamas. and remnant forests of native queñua These native forests are some of the most ecologically threatened in Peru. And contain amazingly-high levels of endemism. The photo above shows a view from Tress Cruces near the entrance of the reserve. in the background rises the Urubamba Mountain range or Cordillera Urubamba.


Crossing over the eastern edge of the Andes. the traveler journeying towards the Manu river often encounters a thick blanket of clouds the beginning of the cloud forest in this mysterious. Ghostly-lit word live brilliant-red Cock-of the-Rocks. Spectacled Bears and scores of dripping tree ferns bromeliads. and orchids Ranging in elevation from 1,1.500 to 3.000 feet (3.500 to 1,000 meters), the cloud forest is one of the least studied of environments; at least 50% of its plant species are found nowhere else on earth. Above a view to the south-east from -trees Cruces.


Heavy mists and frequent rains (up to 23 feet. or 6 meters annually) support the cloud forest’s dense stunted canopy of evergreen trees in a process called “cloud stripping the leaves cause the condensation of the moisture from the clouds. Water is therefore continually forming on the plant surfaces and drip-ping towards the ground in many Andean myths, the cloud forest is considered a realm of moral obscurity evil and even treachery such myths may partly be due to the fact that according to Inca legend Indians from the lowland rainforest are said to have climbed up through the cloud forest and sacked the Incas capital of Cuzco not once. but several times below Rain Frog (Eleuthero dactylus cosñipata) enjoys abundant moisture at 5,300 feet (1.600 meters) in the Cosñipata Valley right The base of Cerro Apuccañahuay Located near Tress cruces Cruces. At 13:000 feet (4.000 meters). it is one of Manu’s highest mountains.


The perpetual humidity of the cloud forest makes t an ideal home for epiphytes-plants that live on other plants their moisture and nutrients from their surroundings. not the ground. As dust, leaves and dirt accumulate on branches lichens and mosses begin a colonization process that is soon followed by ferns bromeliads and orchids. In this photo, cloud forest trees lie swathed in thick carpets of epiphytic plants that may accumulate one upon the other, layer after layer interestingly. Mosses, lichens and ferns-some of the oldest plants on earth all depend upon motile sperm for sexual reproduction inextricably linked to third watery origins. Rain must fall in order for the plants sperm to be able to travel over the plants’ wet surfaces, find an egg, and reproduce. Flowering plants evolved only later relying upon pollen as a means of liberating themselves ¡re from their ancient links to the sea.