Macaw Clay Licks in the Amazon Manu

Macaw Clay Licks in the Amazon Manu

In the Amazon the manu , palm trees, and individual trees are generally more important for birds as habitat . Considering the geological age of Mauritia flexuosa in South America, and assuming that large manchales have been part of the landscape for millions of years , it may be surprising that there are not any distinctive emerged fauna associated with forest of palm tree in the Amazon. In large database compiled by Douglas Stotz and his coauthors , only four bird species were reported as users of Mauritia flexuosa manchales as primary habitat . Only two species of palm swift ( Reinarda squamata , Apodidae ) and moriche cacique (Icterus chrysocephalus , Icteridae ) – are largely restricted to aguajales , although no species is endemic to this habitat. Most birds that visit aguajales also feed , seeking protection and shelter in the nearby forest. The diversity of birds is relatively low in the aguajales because there are fewer resources compared to the rainforest or other floodplain habitat .

Within the Amazon are the richest bird communities are associated closed forest with galena, and Mauritia flexuosa may be dominant , or one of the dominant species in these plant communities. Botanists working in separate closed frequently pure Mauritia flexuosa manchales of gallery forests dominated by different species of palm trees in the Amazon manu , and it would be interesting to know to what extent bird communities of these two types are complementary . It is known that the rhea ( Rhea americana , Rheidae ), for example , foraging in both vegetation types.

David Snow , an expert on South American frugivorous birds , raised the palms ( Arecaceae ) competing Burseraceae family Lauraceae and as the most important bird specialized in fruits. The Manu Amazon is a center for fruit-eating birds . Although few studies have been observed adjacent upland birds along with mammals, seeds probably move between these habitats . Large differences in the densities of these palm trees in wetlands and watercourses firm contiguous forest land type could be attributed , in many cases , more seed dispersers to soils or other environmental factors . For example, a species has a genetic propensity to grow along streams, but because of the constant dispersion is found in the highlands , and vice versa.

The fruits of many species of Bactris are also eaten by many birds of different families. All these have fleshy fruits and are relatively small, so that a wide range of birds can eat them and disperse their seeds , and other dispersal agents , such as fish and streams in the seasonally flooded forests of the manu Amazon.

Within the Amazon one manu 30 palm species examined by specialists , about half can be found in manchales ranging from several hectares to tens of square kilometers were studied. Of these species only Astrocaryum jauari Phjtelephas macrocarpa and seem to have fruits that are not consumed by birds main form . The fruits of Phjtelephas macrocarpa are covered by woody and spiny projections that birds can not open . In contrast, jauari Astrocaryum fruits are abundant and exposed , but the palm tree is heavily guarded with thorns. Few birds attempt to remove the rewards of this thorny palm , although blue and yellow macaws Ara araraund ) occasionally take mature and immature fruits. Although the fruits of Astrocaryumjauari are intensely consumed by fish and fleshy pericarp is rich in carbohydrates , it is possible that parrots and macaw clay lick avoid them because of the thorns. None of the palm species most consumed by macaws and parrots is heavily armed with thorns. It also appears that Astrocaryum adjacent jauari is high Cerrai , birds , with mammals , probably seeds move between these habitats . Large differences in the densities of these palm trees in wetlands and watercourses firm parrots and macaw clay lickscontiguous forest land type could be attributed , in Cuchos cases , more seed dispersers to soils or other environmental factors . For example, a species has a genetic propensity to grow along . Watercourses , but because of the constant dispersion is found in the highlands , and vice versa.

The fruits of many species of Bactris are also eaten by many birds of different families. All these have fleshy fruits and are relatively small, so that a wide range of birds can eat them and disperse their seeds , and other dispersal agents , such as fish and streams in the seasonally flooded forests .

Of the approximately 30 species of palm trees examined in this book, about half can be found in manchales ranging from several hectares to tens of square kilometers. Of these species only A.stroca / yum jauari Phytelephas macrocarpa and seem to have fruits that are not consumed by birds main form . The fruits of Phytelephas macrocarpa are covered by woody and spiny projections that birds can not open . In contrast, jauari Astrocaryum fruits are abundant and exposed , but the palm tree is heavily guarded with thorns. Few birds attempt to remove the rewards of this thorny palm , although collpas blue and yellow macaws (Ara ararauna ) occasionally take mature and immature fruits. Although the fruits of Astrocaryum jauari are intensely consumed by fish and fleshy pericarp is rich in carbohydrates , it is possible that parrots and macaws avoid them because of the thorns. None of the palm species most consumed by the macaw clay licks and parrots is heavily armed with thorns. It also appears that Astrocaryum jauari is one of the few species of palm tree that evolved to have fish as their main seed dispersers .

macaw lick manu jungle tripsThe degree to which an individual species of frugivorous birds in the Manu Amazon depends on the palms is difficult to ascertain because few studies have been conducted over a full year. The study by David Shaw on guácharos ( Steatornis caripensis ) in Trinidad revealed that these cave dwellers subsist largely thanks to the manu palm fruits , which included Amazonian species or species closely related to them. In his nightly search Oilbirds can reach distances of 25-50 km, which would make these birds efficient dispersal agents in a wide range of action , although many seeds , such as Euterpe probably die within the caves. Seasonal studies conducted by Mauro Galetti in the Atlantic forest of Brazil reported 14 species of birds that feed on the fruits of Euterpe edulis. The overlap in the diet of birds was low because different species consumed fruits in different stages of the year. Resident birds such as toucans and cotingas , fed on the fruits of E. edulis mostly at the beginning of the fruiting season , while migratory birds, such as thrushes, were fed to the middle of the season.

Susan Douglas Levey Moegenburg and conducted experiments on multiple sites dominated by Euterpe oleracea in the Amazon estuary in the Manu . A comparison of temporal and spatial use of fruit dominated parrots in four sites and four sites not dominated by Euterpe oleracea revealed that parrots spent between 48 % and 92 % more time on the first type of habitat. At least 20 frugivorous birds visited manchales palm , and these included the violinist of the palms ( Thraupispalmarum ) , collared trogon (Trogon collaris ) , Red-winged parrot ( Deroptyus accipitrinus ) , white-bellied Parakeet ( Pionites leucogastei ) and parrot yellow wing ( Brotogeris versicolorous ) , scarlet macaw (Ara DSCAF ) and white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis) . The authors concluded that the abundance of palm trees influence the species composition of bird communities and frugivorous feeding behavior of individual bird species.

In addition to providing food , the palm trees also serve as nesting sites for a diverse group of birds, especially parrots and macaw clay licks. At least eight species of macaws and parrots are known to nest mainly on palm trees in the Amazon. The palm kernel rots quickly, even when dead palm trees are still standing . The general impression is that Mauri ~ J- flexuosa provides more space , which is obvious in many wetlands palm due to the large number of dead trees. Communities of Mauritia flexuosa is n abundant along tens of thousands of kilometers of waterways that are almost in direct contact with adjacent upland forests . These well-spread palm communities represent a habitat for many birds from the mainland. Mauritia holes are also important in regions of closed and Sabir -i . Helmut Sick even proposed that some swifts, have ” the swift tail ash ( Chaetura andrei, Apodidae ” would be able to conquer the open areas of the central if not for the presence of holes in dead trees for nesting important several species of birds. swifts palm ( Reinarda squamata , Apodidae ), for example , builds its nest among the dead fronds that are still hanging on Mauritia palms in the Amazon . shaped leaves of many fan palms are also used by many birds as umbrellas for protection from sun, rain and predators.

Parrots and macaw lick are generally considered the winged wonders of the palm forests , and the following discussion focuses on them. Blue Macaw ( Anodorhynchus hyaántbinus ) , perhaps the most spectacular member of this family , is found in a variety of habitats ranging from the state of Pará , in the Amazon Manu , to the southern Pantanal . The Blue Macaw is mostly south of the Amazon River v has only occasionally been reported north of it. In the southern Amazon is both the seasonally wet open forest and savannah regions and closed , which are crossed by gallery forests or possessing manchales palm . This large macaw is associated with palm trees as a food source and as a nesting site .

In the Amazon basin, it has been reported that the blue macaw feeds mainly on seeds and Attaleaphalerata Attalea speáosa , you can take the trees or looking at the floor. Attalea speáosa Babalu is the famous palm tree, an invasive species of upland has benefited from deforestation. Attalea phalerata is found in both upland and along waterways in the southern Amazon. The half dozen species of palm from the blue macaw feeds are of little interest to other parrots , as it seems that this species has only enough strength in the peak to break hard seeds of palm trees.

No it has been reported that the blue macaw regularly feed on the fruits of Mauritia flexuosa and it is unclear whether this is due to lack of observations or a reflection of his behavior. Large macaw clay licks can visit manchales Mauritia flexuosa for food more frequently than indicated brief observations reported in the literature form . Experiments have shown that the blue macaw quickly accepts the fruits of Mauritia , which break easily .

The major role of manchales ( buritiais ) Mauritia flexuosa for Blue Macaw is to build their nests . Nesting takes place during the dry season in the closed region in the southern Amazon. The blue macaws also nest on cliffs , but these habitats are found only in part of their range. Large Mauritia flexuosa manchales are often really sandstone cliffs in the closed , and it would be interesting to know more about nesting in these areas to see which is the preferred habitat for this activity .

The blue macaw has suffered more because of the traffic of wild species by habitat destruction in central Brazil . Due to legislation that protects these birds have a high price in the business of trading of birds . However, with the large-scale transformation of the closed and the disappearance of Mauritia manchales . populations of this spectacular macaw could eventually be reduced.

The case of the blue and yellow macaw (Ara ararauna ) is the most visible in relation to manchales Mauritia flexuosa throughout the Manu Amazon. Few forest views rival the beauty of the noisy flocks of these macaw clay licks Mauriút through forests flooded by sewage. I yellow blue macaws are found in rivers of all kinds 3sri and depends largely on the bottomlands of Mauriám , gallery forests of palm trees on the savanna and seasonally flooded boscurí .

Links between manchales Mauritia v blue and yellow macaws seem to vary from time. In all areas , the dead trees are Mauritia “preferred nesting sites. For example , in an area of ​​countryside along the Tambopata River, a 3 = 1 tributaix Mother of God , in southeastern Peru , which included palm trees and floodplain Donaldo BríghisniÉl found 72 nests in 50 different cavities, 47 which were in dead Mauritia palms . The egg-laying took place at the beginning of the rainy strong look , and hatchlings emerge between February , This rainy season , and May , at the beginning of the dry vegetation.

In the middle reaches of the Black River, where large birds of Mauritia bordering floodplain collpas blue and yellow macaws also nest during the rainy months . This season is also the foundation on which the palm can be under a three meters of water for several months. Although the blue and yellow guacancos form flocks of between ten and fifty individuals , groups are largely composed of couples and their offspring. During the nesting season the Black River in the Amazon, the adult specimens are out of the woods of Mauritia morning and weaves to feed in the floodplain , where part of the year visitors can find a variety of fruits of other trees in the Amazon . These birds seem to have a tendency to cross the rivers to feed on the opposite side to their nests . In fact, a common observation throughout the Amazon Manu are the blue and yellow macaws crossing rivers four times a day , two in the morning and two in the afternoon. The chicks are fed twice daily as a result of these flights . Even when they are not nesting , macaws eat regularly and settle to sleep on the opposite side of the river.

The degree to which the lick of blue and yellow macaws eat the fruits of Mauritia varies according to the region and is probably related to the availability of other fruits. Although mature fruits of Mauritia are available during the nesting season , rarely seen these birds are feeding them. In the region of Black River Manu , these seem to select the fruits of Mauritia when the most preferred species of the floodplain are not available. Other macaw clay licks , however , regularly feed on the fruits of Mauritia . Macaws of the Black River also feed on manchales of Euterpeprecatoria growing in watercourses strongly typed forest land at the beginning of the dry season and after the end of their power , but always returning to the forests of Mauritia to rest in the Amazon .

In closed environments and savannah, blue and yellow macaws apparently depend Mauritia during the dry season when few species are fruiting . It has also been reported to carry the relatively large seeds in flight and therefore are potential dispersers . In fact, along with most other parrots and macaw clay licks , are considered among the most important dispersers in Mauritia closed. Much of its role in the dispersion of Mauritia takes place indirectly because they are messy eaters and often pluck more fruits of that use . These fruits turn are eaten by land animals, some of which disperse the seeds.

Although not as colorful as the blue and yellow macaw, red-bellied macaw ( Orthopsittaca [ Ara ] manilata ) is even more associated with wetlands Mauritia and only venture out of them occasionally. The blue and yellow macaws and red belly can often be seen competing for holes in trees and occasionally Mauritia nest and roost in the same tree in the Amazon , if it has different cavities. The cries of these two species of macaws are the sound identification of wetlands palm . The red-bellied macaws seem to keep her holes along all year , even when they are not nesting , which usually happens during the flood season . These are considerably smaller than the blue and yellow and central Amazonia differ markedly from those in their dependence on the fruits of Mauritia flexuosa . Also reported fruit consumption Mauritia carana .

In amazonua other parrots and macaw clay licks also nest and feed regularly in the forests of Mauritia or manchales closed or savanna , to varying degrees in the Amazon. These include Chestnut fronted Macaw ( Ara severa ) , yellow parrot { Amazona ochrocephala front ) and orange winged parrot (Amazona Amazon ) . All these also consume the fruits of Mauritia but not destroy the seeds . Small parrots Forpus gender can also be common in the Amazon manu .

The Blue-throated Macaw (Ara glaucogularis ) is very similar to blue and yellow macaw but is found only in the Llanos de Moxos in northern Bolivia . Carlos Yamashita and Yuri Machado de Barros reported that this species is largely confined to manchales Attalea phalerata and gallery forests of the Amazon manu . Although these groups were not flooded palm trees when they were visited by Yamashita and Barros during the dry season , A.ttalea phalerata is subject to large-scale flooding in the Llanos de Moxos during the rainy season . The Blue-throated Macaw feeds mostly Attalea phalerata mesocarp . With its narrower and longer than the blue and yellow macaw jaws, the blue-throated macaw is able to peel and turn the fruits of Attaka phalerata to remove the mesocarp . Otto Jordan and Charles Munn also observed tearing macaws immature palm nuts to drink the liquid they contain. The Blue-throated guacanco apparently nests in holes Attalea phalerata . What seems surprising is that despite the fact that manchales Mauritia flexuosa are common in the same region of savanna , the authors of the study described above, found no evidence that blue-throated macaw will use these formations. Blue and yellow macaw , however , is present in the Mauritia manchales manu Amazon . If long-term studies show that blue macaw clay licks avoid aguajales throat , then this could be an excellent example of the ecological principle of competitive exclusion, where related species excludes the other .

Besides manchales Attalea Mauritia and subject to seasonal flooding in the savannah region of Bolivia . also be found vast forests of Coperniría alba , ranging southern Plains Moxos. extending south in the Pantanal of Brazil and southern Paraguay . Ios Coperniría alba fruits are important for toucans play ( Kamphoastos touched ) during the dry season in the Amazon . The largest flightless bird from South America, the rhea ( Rhea americana ) is also fed by the fruits of Coperniría , and both birds are dispersing their seeds .