BIRDS – MANU NATIONALPARK
has, within its boundaries, the highest concentration of bird life on Earth. At the time of writing, approximately 925 species have been recorded and ornitholigists expect this figure to break the 1000 mark in the near future as remoter areas of the reserve are explored. There are a little under 9000 species of birds in the world and therefore Manu holds one in every nine species found on the planet. No other protected area on Earth contains so many birds. The explanation for so much avian diversity is that the Manu Biosphere Reserve contains a great variety of altitudinal zones and habitat types. Altitudes vary from over 4000 meters above sea level in the high Andes down to 350 meters in the low land Amazonian rain forest and for every 1000 meters gained or lost, the structure of the bird communities differs. This, coupled with the variety of forest types, grass lands, lakes, and micro-habitats such as bamboo stands, reed-beds, and tree falls. Has produced the highest bird count for any area in the world.
Birds Manu national park is a birdwatchers’ paradise, and many eco-tourists visit the reserve specifically to watch birds. On a two to three week birding trip to Manu, from the highlands to the lowlands, birdwatchers regularly record 450-500 species per trip, a staggering number. The high grasslands at Ajcanacu Pass hold high altitude Tinamous, Canasteros and Sierra-finches and this life zone is one of the least ornilhologically explored areas of Birds Manu national park and where we expect several new species for the Birds Manu Reserve to be added in the near future. At this altitude of nearly 4000 meters, a stunted forest, known as elfin forest, holds several Tanagers, Flower piercers and a Thistle tail found nowhere else in the reserve. Below the elfin forest and high grasslands, at 3400-2500 meters, is the humid temperate forest, characterized by tree- ferns and chusquea bamboo stands. Birds such as Gray-breasted Mountain Toucan, Swallow-tailed Nightjar, Mountain Cacique, Barred Fruit eater and White-collared Jay Are typical. Below 2500 meters on down to 1500 meters is the humid subtropical forest. This is the home of one of Birds Manu natinal park’s most well-known and spectacular birds the Andean Cock-of-the-Rock. A visit to a lek (traditional display site) is a must, as up to 20 brightly-colored males sing and display in an attempt to attract the seemingly indifferent females. Here too are Quetzals, Toucans, and a wide variety of Tan- agers. Flycatchers and Wrens. A morning’s bird watching here can be a fantastic experience as large mixed-species flocks containing several dozen species of birds move through the cloud forest, some sally-gleaning, some probing crevices, others climbing tree trunks or limbs. Below here and between 1500 and 900 meters is the humid upper tropical forest where some of the difficult to see birds of Manu exist. The forest at this altitude is under much pressure in the rest of the Western Amazon due to cutting for the growing of tea, coffee and coca. In Manu National Park it remains intact. Here mixed-species flocks may contain Orange-fronted Plushcrown, Varicolored Barbet, Black-billed Tree Hunter, Buff-browed Foliage Gleameri, Slaty Anthren and scores of Flycatchers, Wood creepers, Tanagers and Flower piercers.
Leaving the Andes behind with its rushing streams and montane forest, the visitor to Birds Manu national park suddenly finds him or herself in flat humid tropical forest—the Amazon Basin proper Here, the Manu River is characterized by a meandering, slowflowing watercourse with white sand beaches exposed during the dry season from June to October. These beaches provide valuable nesting habitat, and are loaded with nesting and visiting birds. Unlike many other river systems in the Amazon, birds can breed unmolested. Hundreds of Black Skimmers, Large-billed and Yellow-billed Terns, Orinoco Geese, Pied Lapwings, Collared Plovers and Sand-colored Nightjars nest along thebirs Manu national park . These beaches are also used by Jabiru and American Woodstorks, Roseate Spoonbills, a variety of Egrets and Herons and, in late July and August, many migrating shorebirds from North America on their way to points further south.
The slow-flowing river forms high banks on outside river bends where at certain favored spots hundreds of Macaws, Parrots and their smaller relatives congregate to eat clay essential to their digestion. The spectacle of hundreds of Macaws, the world’s largest members of the Parrot family, screaming and wheeling overhead and settling on the clay lick Is surely one of the world’s great wildlife shows and worth a trip to Manu on Its own! Macaws are still common and seven species occur in the forests of Birds Manu nationalpark, unlike many other areas where Macaw populations have been severely depleted due to deforestation, hunting and collection for the pet trade. The meandering Manu has created many ox-bow lakes in various stages of development, from recently formed to very old overgrown lakes with almost no water This is a microhabitat characterized by birds such as Sungrebe and Sunbittern, Wattled Jacana, Muscovy Duck, Rufous-sided Crake, Pale-eyed Blackbird, Anhinga, Agami and Boat-billed Herons, Silvered Ant birds, Streaked Ant wrens, Red-capped Cardinals and the strange prehistoric-looking Hoatzin, to name but a few.
The forests of the Birds Manu national park basin vary from varzea forest and transitional floodplain forest to Tierra firmer forest. These pristine lowland forests hold over 500 species alone and present some of the most tricky but exciting bird watching in the world. A good ear is essential as many species are only located when the song or call note is recognized.
BIRDS – MANU NATIONAL PARK – : Diversity of birds in the montane forest Wayqecha Research Center The tropical Andes are considered the most biologically diverse region on the planet. One of its ecoregions, or Yungas montane forests are particularly important as they provide water to the Amazon and make a biological corridor to the highlands. Wayqecha Research Center is immersed in this beautiful cloud forest located in the river valley Kosñipata. To preserve this great place is first necessary to know and investigate what their components and relationships that exist between them. Birds Manu National Park are good bioindicators, ie, we indicate the quality of an ecosystem, this thanks to the ease of observing and / or listen. This study aims to determine the temporal diversity (diversity over time or throughout the year) and space (in different spaces or places) of the bird community in the CI Wayqecha. Diversity is a value that combines the number of species and number of individuals per species, this value therefore gives us information about the bird community works. This is important because it allows us to make comparisons and see what is happening in a certain time period of the Birds Manu National Park
Censuses (counts) of birds were held throughout the trail system IC Wayqecha by the method of counting points in two seasons. He wants to know if the bird community changed or remained the same in these two time periods (temporal diversity). Additionally, see if there are differences in species diversity in the two areas of life: wet forest, lower montane subtropical (BMH-MBS) and Forest Very Humid Montane Subtropical (BMH-MS), this would be the spatial diversity.
Thus, the information generated can be used as a basis for future research not only birds but also with plants or other organisms, we know that all elements of an ecosystem are interrelated. All data to be obtained are needed to expand our knowledge of the ecology of a place so be sure to make decisions that lead to conservacióndentro Birds Manu National Park
In these times we live in a period of climate change, we must be alert to the signs that nature gives us. For example, during the field phase of a bird called Watchmaker Rufo whose scientific name is Baryphthengus martii, nearly 1000 higher normal altitudinal range meters, the recorded data is important because it indicates that their population is possibly looking at the mountain sites cooler to live in the Birds Manu National Park