Cloud forest – Manu National Park – Imagenes

CLOUD FOREST – MANU NATIONAL PARK: Influence of altitude on temperature, pH and conductivity of water between Puerto Maldonado in the Amazon Plain, and the Andes, in the Eastern Cordillera in cloud forest manu national park

Besides the influence of the air temperature cloud forest manu national park  the temperature of the Andean waters depends on the variation of its speed and transparency. A higher speed less time for river water strikes a balance with the air temperature as it passes the altitudinal gradient. Given the incomplete balance between air temperature and the water, the water temperatures are lower than ambient temperatures, and this difference tends to increase faster.

The average ambient temperature in the Andes range from the freezing point cloud forest manu national park  to 4500 meters above sea level to an estimated 22 to 24 degrees Celsius, on the slopes. The water temperature varies from 5 degrees to 4000 meters above sea level to 23 degrees on the slopes. Between May and July the southern cold fronts cause the temperatures to drop to 8 degrees Celsius, a phenomenon known as fruye, and has minimal impact on the temperature of the water in motion in cloud forest manu  national park.

The dissolved oxygen is very important for animal aquatic life. In general, the waters of the Andes are well oxygenated because they flow quickly and are in constant contact with atmospheric oxygen. The dissolved oxygen values ​​vary in a systematic way in the lower altitudes gradient values ​​are presented in the higher regions and the lowest. This systematic trend in the oxygen content in the water is a result of the change, depending on altitude, on factors such as water temperature and flow rate. The atmospheric pressure decreases Atmospheric decreases at higher altitudes, thus reducing the concentration of dissolved oxygen. Between 500 and 1000 meters, decreasing water temperature plays a more important than atmospheric pressure in maintaining relatively high levels of oxygen in rivers paper finding in cloud forest manu national park.

Electrical conductivity is a general measure used to determine the total concentration of salts in water bodies. High Cloud forest manu nationalpark  conductivity levels sometimes indicate high nutrient levels, thus suggesting high productivity of phytoplankton and other organisms that allow photosynthesis. In the case of the headwaters of the Madre de Dios River, the largest conductivity values ​​are above 600 meters. The variations in conductivity with altitude reflect changes in geology and exposure status of the surfaces of the substrates of tax. Tax located at intermediate elevations (600 to 1500 meters) often drain on marine Mesozoic and Paleozoic sediments that have been recently exposed to the environment in cloud forest manu national park.

Higher levels of conductivity are recorded including over 2500 meters, but mainly due to the presence of marine deposits that were high in the Andes. In the basin of the Ucayali River, are large areas of salt deposits of marine origin, which significantly increase the conductivity. These deposits are easily seen to enter the Sacred Valley of the Incas, in the Vilcanota River (Cuzco), which are rare to see in the basin of the Madre de Dios River finding in cloud forest manu national park

CLOUD FOREST – MANU NATIONAL PARK : The forests of cloud forest  to Manu National Park are unique vegetation complexes clouds that are located in areas characterized by persistent or frequent presence of clouds moving. These forests “extract” or capture of the cloud (or fog) in atmospheric moisture movement in addition to the normal rainfall. This phenomenon is known as “horizontal rain” rain or hidden. If not for the presence of trees, shrubs and epiphytes, much of the moisture remaining in the atmosphere of the Cloud Forest of the Manu National Park.

Compared to lowland forests, cloud forests have smaller trees and higher density in stems. The dominant trees generally have twisted or crooked trunks and branches with smaller leaves and leathery. Also these forests are characterized by a high amount of epiphytes (orchids, bromeliads, mosses, ferns and lichens) and fewer woody vines that are in the cloud forest of Manu National Park.

The soils of the cloud forest  Manu National Park in general, are moist and have a thick layer of organic matter. The diversity of trees, grasses, shrubs and epiphytes is high, considering its small size relative to the tropical rain forest, in which the high species richness is concentrated mainly in the trees. Endemism values ​​- ie the set of plants and animals that naturally limited to a certain area, in this case the cloud forest – are also very high cloud forest Manu National Park

The cloud forests of Manu National Park have a very important role in providing drinking water and hydroelectric power to millions of people. It is so important to the water cycle, an average of 1000 mm of rainfall annually absorbed by forests, as if they were giant natural sponges. Simply cut a small area of ​​the delicate green sponge for rain and humidity, previously captured and set harmoniously, become your worst enemy by eroding soils and landslides cause unpredictable  Cloud forest Manu National Park.

The cloud forest of cloud forest Manu National Park are irregularly distributed in mountains along the tropical region (tropical belt) on the planet. They are very beautiful and vulnerable forests and occupy less than 0.26% of the Earth’s land area.

In Cusco the Yungas or cloud forests cover almost 27% (19 260 km2) of its total territory, involving politically eighteen five provinces and districts in manu national park

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