FIELD TRIPS – AMAZON PERU : Approximately 20 million years ago the Andes Mountains began to rise, and orographic uplift has continued without ceasing up to the present day. Today the Andes chain is still one of the most active geological areas on the planet. The chains of mountains stretch from southern most Patagonia, north through to Mexico. They add to the climate and, thus, the biotic diversity of the Neotropics.The geologically youthful Andes are located in western South and Central America. They are hosts for different altitudinal ecosystems and they also act as barriers isolating populations. The north-south orientation of the Andes results in some of the most arid deserts in the western hemisphere being located in coastal Peru and Chile. The Andes Mountains can be seen as a gigantic wall that prevents the moisture laden air that accumulates in the Amazon Basin from reaching the Peruvian and Chilean coasts. Clouds are forced up by the tall mountains and the moisture in them condenses to snow, or rain at mid to low elevation. On the eastern slope of the Andes rain falls heavily.
This creates conditions capable of supporting extremely Lush Mountain and lowland rainforest. One of the major sources of water for the Amazon Basin is snow melt from the Andes. In essence, the Andes maintain the system of precipitation recycling within the Amazon Basin. The Amazon Basin has a shape like an immense horseshoe, with the ancient Guianan Shield bordering to the north, the Brazilian Shield to the south, and the Andes to the west. This topography means that all the water existing in the system is to the east, at the huge mouth of the Amazon. This loss is replaced by the input of rain and melting snow draining from the high Andes. Thus the Amazon Basin is kept in a state of hydrographic equilibrium.
The air that eventually passes over the tall mountains to the other side is fundamentally depleted of its moisture, causing the occurrence of dry deserts on the western side. This “rain shadow effect” means that ecosystems with the same elevation may be dramatically different from one side of a mountain to the other. Filed Trips
TROPICAL ALPINE SHRUB/GRASSLAND – PARAMO : At altitudes above cloud and elfin forests, from Costa Rica south to Bolivia, a shrub land ecosystem occurs. This is named paramo. This ecosystem has a wet and cool climate, which throughout the year often sees nightly frosts. Large clumped grasses called tussock grasses with sharp, yellowish blades, along with a scattering of terrestrial bromeliads and ferns, are the dominant vegetation. Among a landscape of paramo, at elevations between 3,500 and 4,500 m (11,400 – 14,800 ft.) in the Andes, (which is normally above timberline), islands of gnarled trees confined to protected, rocky slopes can be seen. These groups
of trees are dominated by the genus Polylepis, occurring in essentially pure stands at the higher elevations. Polylepis can also be found in lower-elevation cloud forests but normally mixed among other species heights of about 18m (59 ft.) this ecosystem type is considered threatened throughout of its range in the Field trips
Field Trips: Adventure Travel to the Manu Maquisapayoj we leave in the morning to the manu . We will take a trip lasting 12 or 13 hours in a private bus and using a boat ( with short stops in some places ) from Cusco, ascend in the Paso Alto Pirhuayani about 4,725 m ( 15,583 ft). After a brief stop and rest on the top step to watch the spectacular mountains , go down the east side of the Andes through cloud forest with lush vegetation surrounding you as ferns , orchids , bromeliads, etc. . in the lowland rainforest of Inambari river, after crossing the river, take another bus with a duration of 1 hour from the town of Puerto Carlos in Colorado. Here we will catch a boat to take us to a trip of 5 hours to the Madre de Dios River to Maquisapayoj . All enjoy the changing landscape and have the opportunity to observe and be close to the wildlife
along the rocky banks of the Madre de Dios River , we see such as herons , skimmers, Vultures , caimans and some more of the 13 species of monkeys that live in manu Field Trips. In the afternoon we arrive at Field Trips “place of the Black Spider Monkey “. At night rest in comfortable single and double rooms with private bathrooms and hot showers in Maquisapayoj . We have a nice optional night walk to observe the different and beautiful insects , frogs , snakes, etc. . Manu area Field Trips.
Field trips :The Rio Manu at a tent camp near Cocha Salvador Five night stay at field trips. About 500 species of birds can be expected. Up to nine species of monkeys. Incredible mammals such as Tapir and Giant Otter. A trip up the Rio Manu is a once in a lifetime experience, with a chance for Jaguar. Wonderful oxbow lakes. Canopy birding from excellent canopy towers. Very comfortable accommodations, particularly at Manu field trips. Best wilderness experience we know of in Amazonia. Lots of specialties including Andean Cock-of-the-Rock. Includes a visit to a Macaw clay lick. Extension to Machu Picchu after Manu
There is no place that we know of in South America that compares to Manu field trips Located southeast of Cusco, the immense park coverselevations from high Paramo in the Andes to an amazing expanse of lowland Amazonian field trip sik. The actual bird list for the park exceeds 1000 species, and it is one of the few wild places left on Earth that have huge areas undeveloped and even unexplored, with indigenous people living within the park that have never had any contact with the outside world Despite the seemingly remoteness of Manu field trips, it is actually quite accessible by way of the Manu field trips Road, that traverses a transect from Cusco to the Amazonian field trips Lowlands, and then along the Madre de Dios River to the field trips Manu River. Our 17 day tour is designed to sample the best Manu field trip has to offer, staying first at a small rustic lodge near tree line in the eastern Andes, then at Cock-of-the-Rock Lodge at mid-elevations,
famous for its Andean Cock-of-the-Rock lek, then two nights at Amazonia field trips on the Madre de Dios River, then three nights at a tent-camp at Cocha Salvador, up the Manu River in the heart of Manu National Park, and finally at wonderful Manu field trips, with its famous Macaw clay lick nearby. This tour is unsurpassed in scenic beauty, spending virtually all the time in untouched, virgin rainforest, full of macaws, monkeys, large mammals, and more than 500 species of birds. The tour begins and ends in Lima. We’ll fly to Cusco and continue directly up into the high Andes to Wayquecha Lodge for a two night stay, a small rustic lodge near tree line on the eastern side of the high pass between Cusco and Manu field trips. We’ll have a full day to explore the high-elevation temperate forest as we descend to Cock-of-the-Rock Lodge for a two-night stay. The birding here is fantastic, and our main target will of course be Andean Cock-of-the-Rock, but the tanager flock here are also incredible. We’ll search specifically for the Manu Tanager, a yet-to-be described new tanager to science that we shared in the discovery of during a previous tour to this area! Next we’ll descend further into the lowlands Amazonia field trips. We’ll have two nights at this very comfortable lodge located on the Madre de Dios River, and which has a bird list pushing 600 species. Just sitting on the porch and birding the garden with its hummingbird bushes and feeders will be a highlight of the tour. Our next destination is Cocha Salvador located up the wild Manu River. Our accommodations there will be a comfortable tent camp really tent bungalows with beds, so it won’t really be roughing it as much as the name makes it sound. The advantage is that the field trips up the Manu River, and staying near (and visiting) Cocha Salvador is simply stunning. There is even a reasonable chance for seeing Jaguar Finally, we’ll conclude with a five-night stay at Manu field trips, allowing us access to incredible forest trails Amazonian field trips, a wonderful Macaw lick, another beautiful oxbow lake with Giant Otters, and a couple of excellent towers to sample the wilds of the rainforest canopy the amazon field trips The Peruvian amazon field trips
The Amazon field trips has been affected by many of the same changes seen in other developing country areas of the world. Globalization of the world economy has changed the outlook for resource use. Demand for land has increased in a few areas, particularly the southern Amazon field trips in Brazil and Santa Cruz state in Bolivia. Increasing global demands for soy beans, sugar cane and ethanol, African palm oil, beef, and other high-demand, globally traded commodities have been drivers of land and resources use change. Many areas of the Amazon field trips have been opened up to development, and have been subject to in-migration. Have these changes led to a new type of rural development, one driven by new forces reaching into previously isolated rural areas? Has the Amazon experienced desakota-style rural
development as seen in parts of Asia – that is, blurred distinctions between rural and urban, mixed economies and land use, space-time reduction in interactions with other places? How has recent rural development affected ecosystem services and poverty alleviation. The central Peruvian Amazon field trips in the area surrounding the city of Pucallpa provides a test case for answering these questions. The region has been a hotspot of land use change and population growth since the middle of the last century. A major road corridor linking the river port city of Pucallpa with the mega-city, Lima, on the Pacific coast is similar to the Brazilian Amazon field trips in which massive road construction linked the region to the populated center-south of Brazil.
Development in the Central Peruvian Amazon Field Trips :The population of the central Peruvian Amazon field trips has increased from less than 50,000 persons before 1950 to more than 350,000 today. The urban population in the region was near zero in 1940, then with a rural population of 25,000 people. Around 1980 the number of people living in urban areas surpassed the rural population. Today, 72% of the population (274,000 persons) lives in urban areas and 28% live in rural areas (86,000). Most of the urban dwellers live in Pucallpa, the capital of the Department (State) of Ucayali, a transshipment point for goods switching from overland to river travel and vice versa; and a service center for economic activity in the surrounding hinterland. The construction of the road between Lima and Pucallpa motivated initial development of the region between 1945 and 1970. The decade of the 1970s saw substantial migration and population growth into the area. During the 1980s government policy sustained this growth. The region was viewed as a potential “breadbasket” for Peruvian field trips development. This decade also saw the rise of coca cultivation in the selva alta area bordering the Andes mountains. The 1990s were marked by terrorism (by the leftist guerrilla group, the Sendero Luminoso) and continued growth of coca cultivation into the mid-1990s. This decade was also distinguished by the Fujimora administration’s reduction of agricultural support and credit to the region. Over the last several years, growth has continued, mostly without government policy support. Development of the region spurred massive deforestation and changing land cover/land use
Programms Field Trips – Amazon Peru
Manu Expedition 4 days / 3 nights
Manu Expedition – Systems and Ecological Levels: Approximately 20 million years ago the Andes Mountains began to rise, and orographic uplift has continued without ceasing up to the present day. Today the Andes chain is still one of the most active geological areas on the planet. The chains of mountains stretch from southern most Patagonia, north through to Mexico they add to the climate and, thus, the biotic diversity of the Neo tropics. Manu Expedition in jungle trips. We visit a special site of the Manu National Park – a private reserve of Clay Lick and Manu Blanquillo, situated in the southern part of the park! We discover there some paths going through this virgin part of the jungle! To get there, we use the newly paved Interoceanic Highway for the most of the travel followed by a much shorter travel on the Madre de Dios River by motorboat.
Manu Center 5 Days / 4 Nights
MANU CENTER – TROPICAL ALPINE SHRUB/GRASSLAND – PARAMO: At altitudes above cloud and elfin forests, from Costa Rica south to Bolivia, a shrub land ecosystem occurs. This is named paramo. This ecosystem has a wet and cool climate, which throughout the year often sees nightly frosts. Large clumped grasses called tussock grasses with sharp, yellowish blades, along with a scattering of terrestrial bromeliads and ferns, are the dominant vegetation.Among a landscape of paramo, at elevations between 3,500 and 4,500 m and macaws, parrots and parakeets in one of the best clay-licks of Manu Jungle Trips!!
Maquisapayoq is an exceptional clay-lick serving to tapirs and other animals to eat clay! There is also a special roofed platform with mosquito´s nets where visitors can overnight while watching tapirs arriving to eat at nights!