List of the Mammals

List of the Mammals in Manu Jungle Trips: The tropical Andes constitute one of the most important regions globally of mammal diversity and endemism (Ceballos and Ehrlich 2006; Mittermeier et al. 1998; Schipper et al. 2008). Nevertheless, taxonomy and distribution of most of mammals there remain inadequately known and revisions of most groups are needed (Gardner 2007). In South America, mammal species new to science are still being discovered at high rates and most species described in recent years are from the tropical Andes and Brazil (Patterson 2000; Reeder et al. 2007). Small mammals (e.g., bats and rodents) are the most diverse group and account for more than half of the total mammal fauna in any given area. They affect the structure, composition, and dynamics of ecosystems through natural processes such as pollination, seed dispersal and depredation, mycorrhizal dispersal, insectivory, and as food for predators (DeMattia et al. 2004; Mangan and Adler 2002; Muchhala and Jarrín-V 2002; Napolitano et al. 2008; Naranjo et al. 2003; Steiner 1981; Vieira and de Moraes 2006; Walker et al. 2007; Williams-Guillén et al. 2008). Small mammals such as bats are good indicators of habitat disturbance (Castro-Luna et al. 2007; Medellín et al. 2000; Solari et al. 2002; Wilson et al. 1996). Likewise, small mammals have been particularly useful in the study of elevational gradients, mainly because they form well-defined assemblages (in contrast to medium-sized and large mammals) along such gradients (Lomolino 2001; Mena and Vázquez-Domínguez 2005; Patterson et al. 1998).

CENGLISH NAME

  • Common Oposum
  • Silky Anteater
  • Tamandua Tamandua Tetradactyla
  • Giant Anteater
  • Brown Throated
  • Great Long Nosed
  • Long Nosed Nine Banded
  • Giant Priodontes Maximus
  • Saddleback Sagunus Fuscicollis
  • Squirrel Saimiri Sciureus
  • Owl Aotus Spp
  • Dusky Titi Callicebus Spp
  • Red Howler Aloutta Seniculus
  • Black Spider Ateles Belzebuth Chamek
  • Brown Capuchin Cebus Apella
  • Short Eared Dog Atelocynus
  • Microtus
  • Bush Do Speothos Vanaticus
  • Crab Eating Racoon Procyon Crancrivorus
  • South America Nasua Nasua
  • Chosna Potos Flavus
  • Oling Bassaricyon Gabbii
  • Tayra Eira Barbara
  • Southern River Otther Londra Longicaudis
  • Giant Otter Preronura Brasiliensis
  • Ocelot Leopardus Pardalis
  • Huamburushu Leopardus Wiedii
  • Jaguarundi Herpailurus Yagouaroundi
  • Puma Puma Concolor
  • Jaguar Panthera Onca
  • Tapir Tapirus Terrestris
  • Collared Peccary Tayassu Tajacu
  • White Lipped Peccary Tayassu Pecari
  • Spined Porcupine Coendou Bicolor
  • Red Brocket Deer Mazama Americana
  • Gray or Brown Brocket Deer Mazama Gouazoubira
  • Bamboo Rat Dactylomys Dactylinus
  • Brown Agouti Dasyprocta Variegata
  • Aguti Myoprocta Pratti
  • Picuro Paca Agouti Paca
  • Pacrana Dinomys Branickii
  • Capybara Hydrochaeris Hydrochaeris

CSCIENTIFIC NAME

  • (Intuto) Didelphys Marsupialis
  • Cyclopes Didactylus Southern
  • Myrmecophaga Tridactila
  • Three Toed SlothCholepus Hoffmani
  • Dasypus Kapleri
  • Dasypus Novemcinctus
  • Priodontes Maximus

List of the Mammals in Peru

We here present an overview of the current knowledge about patterns of diversity and endemism for small mammals in the tropical Andes of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia: marsupials (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae and Paucituberculata: Caenolestidae), lagomorphs (Lagomorpha: Leporidae), rodents (Rodentia: Abrocomidae, Caviidae, Cricetidae, Ctenomyidae, Echimyidae, Heteromyidae, and Sciuridae), shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae), and bats (Chiroptera: Emballonuridae, Furipteridae, Molossidae, Mormoopidae, Natalidae, Noctilionidae, Phyllostomidae, Thyropteridae, and Vespertilionidae). Peru is the fifth most diverse country for mammals in the World (Pacheco et al. 2009) and Ecuador is listed as the ninth most diverse country despite its considerably small area compared to other megadiverse countries such as Brazil or Mexico (Tirira 2007). In order to assess and characterize small mammal diversity in the region, we conducted a survey of the literature (with special attention to elevational gradient studies), plus specimen records from US museum collections in the Mammal Networked Information System (MaNIS) data portals (http://manisnet.org/portals.html) and unpublished reports whenever these were available to us. Elevational gradient studies included here had to cover at least 70 % of the available elevational gradient and were grouped as local or regional (McCain 2007b), representing alpha or gamma diversity, respectively. They were evaluated based on the study group (bats or nonvolant small mammals), proportion of the entire elevational gradient that was sampled, species richness, and general geographic location (see Table 19.1). We follow Wilson and Reeder (2005) as a taxonomic reference.

Puna and Paramo – List of the Mammals in Manu Jungle Trips:

The puna rodent fauna of Bolivia and Peru has more genera (at least 16) and species (at least 34) than the paramo rodent fauna of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru (at least 8 genera and 16 species). This difference is probably the result of three main factors that have favored diversification in the puna (Reig 1986): the puna is older than the paramo biome (historical effect), it has greater environmental heterogeneity (ecological effect), and it has a larger and more continuous extension, especially on the extensive Altiplano (spatial effect).

Some studies suggest a biogeographical subdivision along the eastern border of the Lake Titicaca basin, with dry puna to the west and humid puna to the east. The dry highland zone of the Titicaca basin itself is characterized by the presence of Phyllotis osilae osilae, Auliscomys boliviensis, Punomys lemminus, Akodon andinus, A. berlepschii, A. boliviensis, A. subfuscus arequipae, Necromys amoenus, Chroeomys jelskii pulcherrimus, and Galea musteloides (Pacheco and Patton 1995; Ramirez et al. 2007). The humid puna of the Cordillera Oriental, on the other hand, is characterized by Phyllotis osilae phaeus, Punomys kofordi, Chreomys jelskii cruceri, Auliscomys pictus, Oxymicterus paramensis, Akodon puer, and Akodon subfuscus subfuscus (Pacheco and Patton 1995). A recent analysis by Ramirez et al.(2007) suggests that small mammal assemblages in the humid puna have greater similarity with those of the paramo than those of the dry puna.

Nonvolant Small Mammals

In general, there are few elevationally complete studies on both eastern and western slopes. We recorded only three studies with > 70% of the gradient sampled (Table 19.1). A study along the Peruvian eastern versant in Manu National Park shows a decrease of species richness with
elevation (Figure 19.3; R2 = 0.82, P = 0.0001). This result contrasts markedly with the pattern of a mid-elevation peak in nonvolant small mammal richness (McCain 2005). Manu has particular rodent assemblages restricted to elevational zones with replacements at species, genus, and even tribal levels (Patterson et al. 1998). A similar pattern of decreasing species richness with elevation occurs in both Yanachaga (Figure 19.3), Peru, with the 68% of gradient sampled (R2= 0.48, P = 0.0001), and Carrasco National Park in Bolivia (Vargas and Patterson 2007; original data not available). Peru’s Manu National Park (340 – 3675 m) has become the most intensively studied protected area in the tropical Andes with more than 20 years of mammalogical research (Pacheco et al. 1993; Patterson et al. 1998; Solari et al. 2006), but no similar efforts have occurred in other tropical countries (see below). There are no studies of complete elevational gradients in Bolivia,  Ecuador, or Colombia. We did not consider the data of Osgood (1914) from Libertad, Peru, because they would require reanalysis based on reidentification of specimens using current taxonomy.

On the western slope of the Peruvian Andes (Pearson and Ralph 1978), diversity increases with elevation (R2 = 0.44, P = 0.0001), probably as a result of increased precipitation (and vegetation) with elevation, and more speciation events in the puna than in coastal deserts (Marquet 1994; Pearson and Ralph 1978). No studies appear to have been conducted on the more humid and diverse Pacific slope of Colombia, Ecuador (the Chocó), and northern Peru (Pacific tropical forest). Detailed studies testing both historical and environmental hypotheses should be
conducted to improve our knowledge of the relationship between nonvolant small mammal richness and elevation along the latitudinal extension of the western slope of the tropical Andes, which presents contrasting lowlands such as the Pacific desert and Pacific tropical rainforests, In general, there are few elevationally complete studies on both eastern and western slopes. We recorded only three studies with > 70% of the gradient sampled (Table 19.1). A study along the Peruvian eastern versant in Manu National Park shows a decrease of species richness with elevation R2 = 0.82, P = 0.0001). This result contrasts markedly with the pattern of a mid-elevation peak in nonvolant small mammal richness (McCain 2005). Manu has particular rodent assemblages restricted to elevational zones with replacements at species, genus, and even tribal levels (Patterson et al. 1998). A similar pattern of decreasing species richness with elevation occurs in both Yanachaga (Figure 19.3), Peru, with the 68% of gradient sampled (R2 = 0.48, P = 0.0001), and Carrasco National Park in Bolivia (Vargas and Patterson 2007; original data not available). Peru’s Manu National Park (340 – 3675 m) has become the most intensively studied protected area in the tropical Andes with more than 20 years of mammalogical research (Pacheco et al. 1993; Patterson et al. 1998; Solari et al. 2006), but no similar efforts have occurred in other tropical countries (see below). There are no studies of complete elevational gradients in Bolivia, Ecuador, or Colombia. We did not consider the data of Osgood (1914) from Libertad, Peru, because they would require reanalysis based on reidentification of specimens using current taxonomy.

On the western slope of the Peruvian Andes (Pearson and Ralph 1978), diversity increases with elevation (R2 = 0.44, P = 0.0001), probably as a result of increased precipitation (and vegetation) with elevation, and more speciation events in the puna than in coastal deserts (Marquet 1994; Pearson and Ralph 1978). No studies appear to have been conducted on the more humid and diverse Pacific slope of Colombia, Ecuador (the Chocó), and northern Peru (Pacific tropical forest). Detailed studies testing both historical and environmental hypotheses should be
conducted to improve our knowledge of the relationship between nonvolant small mammal richness and elevation along the latitudinal extension of the western slope of the tropical Andes, which presents contrasting lowlands such as the Pacific desert and Pacific tropical rainforests,