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FAUNA A total of more than 800 bird species (Saavedra, 1989) and 200 species of mammals has been identified, 500 birds alone from the lowland forests around Cocha Cashu Biological Station, and the check lists of Terborgh, Janson and Brecht (1984) give habitats, foraging position, activity (sociability) and abundance for all birds and mammals found up to 1982. The bird species found in Manu represent 25% of all the birds known in South America and 10% of all the species in the world and it is thought that there may be as many 1,000 bird species in total. According to Renton (1990), six species of macaw occur in the lowland forest, Ara ararauna, A. chloroptera, A. macao, A. severa, and A. manilata. Three Endemic Bird Areas are represented within the park, the South-east Peruvian lowlands (B30), home to 15 restricted range species, the Eastern Andes of Peru (B29), with 11 restricted range species, and the Western Andes of Peru (B27) with 30 restricted range species (ICBP, 1992). There are 13 species of monkey, and it is estimated that there are over 100 species of bat. There are also 12 species of reptiles within 7 families (UNA-CEPID, 1986), and 77 species of Amphibian from fire families are known for the Cocha Cashu area (Rodriguez, in press). There are no check lists available for invertebrates, although it has been estimated that the park contains
around 500,000 species of arthropod. Again, most of the information has been gathered in the lowlands, and little detailed information is available on mountain fauna. Species known to be globally threatened which occur in the park include woolly monkey Lagothrix lagotricha, Emperor tamarin Saguinus imperator, giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis (VU), giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (VU), giant armadillo Priodontes maximus (EN), ocelot Felis pardalis, Andean cat Oreailurus jacobita (VU), jaguar Panthera onca, small-eared zorro Atelocynus microtis (DD), bush dog Speothos venaticus (VU), North Andean Huemul Hippocamelus antisensis (DD), spectacled bear Tremarctos ornatus (VU), crocodile crocodilus crocodilus, and black caiman Melanosuchus niger (EN). Fish species identified by Groenendijk and Hajek (1995) which are eaten by the local poplulation include gamitana Colossoma macroponum, paco Piaratus brachypomus red-tailed sabalo Brycon erythropterum, boquichico Prochilodus nigricans, lisa Leporinus trifasciatus and lisa Schizodon fasciatus
CULTURAL HERITAGE :The park is inhabited by at least four different native groups: the Machiguenga (or Yora), the Mascho-Piro, the Yaminahua and the Amahuaca. The best known and largest ethnic group within the park is the Machiguenga, found throughout the area with the exception of the highlands and upper parts of the Manu river. The forest indians are nomadic, mostly subsistent on some form of rootcrop agriculture on alluvial soils along river banks and lakes, on hunting along water courses and inside the forest, on fishing and on the collection of turtle eggs (Jungius, 1976). Shifting cultivation is the basic agricultural practice. In this system, a patch of primary forest or an abandoned field is cleared, burned and used during the first, second and sometimes third year for cultivation. The field is then abandoned for at least five years and a new one is opened up. As it is easier to clear secondary growth on abandoned fields than to clear the primary forest, the indians prefer to re-use old fields. These peoples are considered part of the park’s natural system, and are left to use the park as they please while their lifestyle does not threaten the park’s objectives.
LOCAL HUMAN POPULATION :Most of the people within the park are indians. The Machiguenga tribe, which is the best known, was reported by Ferrero (1967) to have a total population of 5,000 people, and by Varese (1972) 12,000. Very little is known about the Amahuaca and Yaminahua distribution and their numbers are relatively small. Varese (1972) recorded some 4,000 Amahuaca along the Curanga, Inuya and Sepanua rivers, and 2,000 Yaminahua along the Carija Basin and Piedra Rivers. However, the management plan (La Molina, 1986) suggests that only 300-500 natives of different tribes live in the park. There are no towns in the park, but there is are some 70,000 Quechua speaking inhabitants grouped in 30 rural communities in the high Andean zone, which is adjacent to the park in the Province of Paucartambo. In 1980, most people living outside the park were miners (over 50%), the remainder being principally peasant farmers or fishermen (over 25%).
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VISITORS AND VISITOR FACILITIES TO AMAZON WILDLIFE :Since 1980 the Park has received 250-300 visitors annually, usually in organized groups. There were no accommodation facilities inside the park, and all visitors had to come equipped with food and camping equipment. In 1986 the first permanent tourist lodge was built, and by the late 1980s some 500 visitors came to the park annually, usually during the May to October dry season. A study on the impact of tourism on the park has been undertaken (Dunstone, 1989). There are two main routes into the park, a gravel road from Cuzco to Salvacion (where the Administration Centre of the park is located), followed by travel along the river, or by air from Cuzco (although again river travel is necessary to get up into the area). The overland journey takes up to 1.5 days. Tourist camps exist within cultural and reserved zones adjacent to the par According to Janson (1994), six tourism companies operate 20-bed lodges in Manu Amazon Wildlife, run on sustainable principles.
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND FACILITIES TO AMAZON WILDLIFE: The first collections in Manu national park to amazon wildlife were made at the end of the 1950s by Celestino Kalinowski, who sold birds, mammals and reptiles to several museums around the world. The first research was done on the black cayman by Kai Otte, assisted by Ranger Jorge Cardenas. After that in 1974 a group of scientists from Princetown University and Chicago University (US) began a series of long-term ecological studies on primates around Cocha Cashu Biological Station, which had been established in 1969 by the National Agrarian University La Molina. In 1975 botanical and ornithological studies were added to the primate studies. In 1981, a donation by was used to construct a new facility for scientific research. Since 1983, the Cocha Cashu Biological Station accommodates between 20 and 30 researcher workers each year. Although the main programmes are in primates, birds and floristic inventories, there are other projects on mammals (Pteronura brasiliensis, Felis spp.), reptiles (Melanosuchus), ants and the population dynamics of the yellow spotted sideneck turtle Podocnemis unifilis (VU). Cocha Cashu Biological Station is located 45km northwest from the mouth of Rio Manu (80km upstream) and about 8km inside the border of Manu National Park to amazon wildlife . It consists of two thatch-roofed houses and a network of trails totaling roughly 20km. A report on the impact of tourism, bats, fish and birds has been compiled (Dunstone, 1989). In 1994, the Imperial College Manu expedition studied orchid and fish diversity (Groenendijk and Hajek, 1995).
CONSERVATION VALUE :Manu National Park amazon wildlife is probably the most biologically diverse protected area in the world. It contains nearly all the ecological formations of eastern Peru: tropical lowland forest; montane forest and puna grasslands, with their respective flora and fauna. Consequently, Manu is the most exclusive and representative park in the Amazon wildlife basin. Some botanists claim that Manu has more plant species than any other protected area on the earth.
The 850 bird species found in Manu represent 15% of all the bird species in the world. There are at least 13 amazon wildlife species in the park known to be globally threatened including black caiman, giant otter and ocelot. There is also a diverse number of fish, amphibians and invertebrates and it has been estimated that the park contains at least 500,000 species of arthropods (IUCN Technical Evaluation, 1989).
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CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT :Manu National Park Amazon Wildife is fully protected by a National Supreme Decree. There are two main objectives for the park, to preserve the environment and species diversity, and to provide an area for recreation and education of the general public. Most of the tourist and research pressure is however directed to the adjacent reserved zone. A management plan has been drafted and is being implemented by means of three programmes, Environmental Management, Public Use and Operations. The park has been divided into 4 zones, the largest by far being a restricted zone mostly of undisturbed forest, accessible only to authorized researchers, official visitors and scientific tourist groups. There are two recreational areas, in Ajanaco-Tres Cruces where there are 200ha, and in the reserved zone of 257,000ha adjacent to the park, as well as a cultural zone where fishing, hunting and logging is permitted. There is also a recuperation zone located in the Andean pastures, where burning and cattle raising are being controlled. Service zones comprises small areas around control posts or the Biological Station, in some cases outside the park. There is an administrative headquarters, five operational control posts, one of which is located outside the park on the lower Manu River to discourage potential loggers and poachers. By the early 1980s all illegal logging along the Manu River had been stopped. Efforts have been made to integrate local inhabitants into the management of the park and a sustained programme of personnel training, health care, education and rural development are likely to continue to contribute to Manu’s protection (Saavedra, 1989) to manu parak amazon wildlife :