Manu National Park 8 days

Manu National Park Diversidad y Ecología de los Quirópteros en Pakitza

We report 55 species of bats for the Pakitza Biological Station, Reserved Zone, Manu National Park, Peru. We update the geographical distribution of each and comment on their abundance, roosts, habitat preference, use of forest (uiulcrstory, mulstory, and canopy), nocturnal activity, female reproductive condition, and. diet.

Amazon Peru Rainforest

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  • Length: 8 Days /7 Nights ;
  • Type of service: Private or Group ;
  • Location: Southern Peru, Madre de Dios Department, Manu National Park ;
  • Activities:  Manu National Park , Manu Biosphere Reserve, Flora & fauna, Otorongo Lake, Cocha Salvador, jungle trips
  • Altitude: 400 – 3,600 m.a.s.l.
  • Best time to visit: April – December ;
  • Departure: Every Day  ;
  • Minimum of participants: 2
  • Maximum of participants: 10
  • Price per person:

CLICK MAP OF MANU NATIONAL PARK

manu national park zone reserve jungle trips

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Quick Itinerary of the Manu  National Park:

Cusco Ninamarca to Pilcopata Town Manu Park

  • Manu Tour – Departure for Manu Tour between 5:30 a.m. and 6:00 a.m.
  • Lunch and dinner included
  • Transfer by bus from hotel in Cusco
  • Travel by car from Cusco to Pilcopata (185 km)
  • Visit Ninamarka (3,700 m.a.s.l), Pucartambo (2,906 m.a.s.l), and Acjanacu (3,490 m.a.s.l.)
  • Altitude of the Cloud Forest varies from 500 m.a.s.l to 4000 m.a.s.l.
  • English-speaking guide
  • Arrive in Pilcopata Town (700 m.a.s.l.)

Rainforest Lodge to Boca Manu

  • Manu Tour – breakfast, lunch, and dinner included
  • Bilingual guide (English and Spanish)
  • Jungle travel by car from Pilcopata to Atalaya Port – 45 minutes
  • Travel by boat 8 hours from Atalaya Port to Boca Manu Lodge
  • Rubber boots included
  • Drinking water provided
  • Activities: walk in the rainforest in Manu National Park, night walk
  • 1 night in Boca Manu Lodge

Manu National Park – Boca Manu Amazon to Otorongo Lake

  • Manu Tour – breakfast, lunch, and dinner included
  • Bilingual guide (English and Spanish)
  • Travel by boat via Manu River from Boca Manu to Manu Reserve – Otorongo Lake
  • 1 night in our lodge
  • Rubber boots included
  • Drinking water provided
  • Activities: afternoon exploring Lake Otorongo
  • Night walk

Manu National Park  –  Otorngo Lake and Salvador Lake 

  • Manu Tour  – bilingual guide (English and Spanish)
  • 5:00 am: wake up
  • Breakfast, lunch, and dinner included
  • 1 night in our lodge
  • Rubber boots included
  • Drinking water provided
  • Activities: afternoon exploring Lake Otorongo and Lake Salvador
  • Night walk

Manu National Park Otorongo Lake to Pakitza .

  • Manu Tour – bilingual guide (English and Spanish)
  • 5:00 am: wake up
  • Breakfast, lunch, and dinner included
  • 1 night in our lodge
  • Rubber boots included
  • Drinking water provided
  • Activities: afternoon exploring Lake Otorongo and Pakitza
  • Night walk

Manu Reserve Center Biosphere – Otorongo Lake – Boca Manu

  • Manu Tour – bilingual guide (English and Spanish)
  • Breakfast, lunch, and dinner included
  • Travel by boat back from Manu Biosphere to Boca Manu
  • 1 night in our Boca Manu Lodge
  • Rubber boots included
  • Drinking water provided
  • Night walk

Boca Manu & Rainforest Lodge

  • Manu Tour bilingual guide (English and Spanish)
  • Breakfast, lunch, and dinner included
  • Travel by boat back from Boca Manu to Rainforest Lodge – 8 hours
  • 1 night in our Rainforest Lodge
  • Rubber boots included
  • Drinking water provided
  • Night walk

Rainforest Lodge to Port Atlaya  & Return to Cusco City

  • Manu Tour bilingual guide (English and Spanish)
  • 5:00 am: wake up and visit Parrot Clay Lick
  • Breakfast and lunch included
  • Departure from our lodge between 8:00 and 8:30 am
  • Travel by boat back from our lodge to Port Atalaya
  • Private car for the group awaits us at Port Atalaya to return to the city of Cusco
  • Arrival in Cusco between 7:00 and 7:30 pm
  • End of service

ITINERARY

ITINERARY FOR AMAZON JUNGLE

Manu National Park 8 days / 7 nights

Tour Day 1:

Cusco Ninamarca to Pilcopata Town Manu Park

We leave Cusco early in the morning to start our adventurous trip. First, we are taken by private transport to a place called Ninamarca to observe pre-Incan “chullpas” (tombs) of the Lupaca culture. Then, we continue to Paucartambo, a colonial town with narrow streets and a beautiful church, where people still keep their old customs. Then, we ascend to the viewpoint Tres Cruces (3,900 masl) to observe one of the best sunrises in the world! From there, we start descending to Manu National Park, where we can find the cock of the rock (the Peruvian national bird), hummingbirds, strikingly-coloured quetzals, trogons, spotted flycatchers, and woolly monkies. In terms of flora, we can view a variety of orchids, mosses, ferns, etc. Finally, we will arrive in Pilcopata (700 masl) where we will spend the night in a jungle lodge after enjoying dinner and a shower in Manu National Park.

Tours Day 2:

  Rainforest Lodge to Boca Manu

Today, after breakfast, we continue navigating for 7 hours on the Alto Madre de Dios River. Along the rocky riverbanks, we will have a great opportunity to observe diverse species  such  as herons, vultures, cormorants, turtles, alligators, and monkeys living in Manu! In the afternoon, we reach the village of Boca Manu to have a refreshing cold beverage. We will take walks in the afternoon and a night walk to spot caimans in the lake. Night in lodge. Showers and toilets available. Optional flight in at Boca Manu in Manu National Park .

Tour Day 3

  Manu  National Park – Boca Manu Amazon to Otorongo Lake

Today, we say goodbye to the Madre de Dios River and begin to navigate on the Manu River, offering us other amazing views of a great variety of species living in and around it, such as groups of turtles, white caimans, capybaras, jaguar (Panthera onca) resting on a log and watching its territory. We will arrive in the afternoon at our campsite in Otorongo. Later on our tour, the guide will take us to the Otorongo Oxbow Lake where an observation tower will allow us to watch giant otters living there. Meanwhile, the guide will teach us functions and secrets of the jungle. After that, we return to spend the night in Safary Camping. Showers and toilets available. Night walk in Manu National Park.

Tour Day 4:

 Manu National Park  –  Otorngo Lake and Salvador Lake

Today, we will visit  another oxbow lake called Salvador Lake in our silent row boat that allows us to observe a family of playful giant river otters, black caimans as well as many rare bird species including a prehistoric bird called shansho.  You can be sure that animals here in the wild Manu Amazon have never suffered from hunting by people! In the afternoon, we will return to our campsite in Otorongo. Night in Safary Camping. Showers and toilets available.

A night walk in Manu National Park

Tour Day 5 :

 Manu National Park Otorongo Lake  to Pakitza

Today after breakfast  our group will travel by boat from Otorongo Lake to Pakitza.   On the way, we will have the opportunity to see a great diversity of species, such as migratory birds like fishermen, in their natural habitat, playing with family, eating their meals, and peeling between them. There are also many opportunities to see the king of the jungle (jaguar) at the edge of the river resting or drinking water, as well as the great rodents of the world, capybaras. Then, we will reach Pakitza where we will explore the many species of flora and fauna in this virgin forest.  In the afternoon, we will take the boat back to our campsite, Otorongo  Night Safary Camping. Showers and toilets available.

Tour Day 6:

Manu Reserve Center  Biosphere – Otorongo Lake – Boca Manu

The call of the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus ) will wake us up. We unfortunately need to start our return on Manu River, and one will be able to understand why Manu is so famous for its wildlife. On the riverbanks, you will be able to observe groups of turtles, White Caimans (Caiman cocodrylus), Capybaras (Hydrochaeris) and maybe a jaguar (Panthera Onca) resting on a log and observing its territory. We will pass the night in the lodge with showers and toilets available.

Tour Day 7 :

Boca Manu & Rainforest Lodge

After breakfast we continue navigating  the Alto Madre de Dios River, where you can observe more birds and plants on the beaches. In the afternoon we will arrive at the Rainforest Lodge.

Night in lodge. Showers and toilets available.

Tour Day 8 :

Rainforest Lodge to Port Atlaya  & Return Cusco City

We will wake up very early today to travel by boat for 10 minutes to see parrot clay lick. After that, we get back to the lodge where we are served breakfast, giving us energy for our last trip so that we are able to board a motorized boat and start navigating towards Port Atalaya. Our private vehicle awaits us there to take us back to Cusco. We will arrive there approximately between 6 and 6:30 pm.

IMPORTANT
You need to be vaccinated against Yellow Fever and bring some anti-malaria tablets with you

TOUR INCLUDES

Included in the Manu National Park 8 day tour:

  • A professional naturalist tour guide;
  • Motorboat transportation;
  • Private vehicle land transportation;
  • Entrance to the Reserved Zone of the Manu National Park;
  • A professional cook,
  • Meals: 7 breakfasts, 8 lunches, 7 dinners and drinking water (Please note: vegetarian option available upon request for no extra cost);
  • Accommodation: 7 nights in our lodges;
  • First aid kit, including a poison extractor, mosquito bite treatment, and an antidote for snake bites;
  • Radio communications;
  • Rubber boots.

Not included in the Manu National Park 8 day tour:

  • Flight and airport departure taxes;
  • Travel insurance;
  • Vaccination;
  • Breakfast on the first day and dinner on the last day;
  • Drinks;
  • Tips to local staff.

What to take with you on the Manu National Park 8 day tour:

  • Mosquito repellent (DEET 35 recommended as a MINIMUM),
  • Original passport,
  • Small backpack,
  • Long sleeved cotton shirts (preferably green coloured),
  • Long cotton trousers,
  • Cotton long socks (to be put into your trousers),
  • Comfortable walking shoes,
  • Sandals or light shoes,
  • Rain gear (e.g. rain poncho),
  • Sweater (for the beginning of the tour in Andes and the cloud forest only),
  • Swimsuit;
  • Binoculars (also available for rent),
  • Camera and charger,
  • Plastic bags to be used for clothes and a camera,
  • A hat as a protection against the sun or rain,
  • Toiletries,
  • Small towel,
  • Toilet paper,
  • Sun cream,
  • Sunglasses,
  • Flashlight (with spare bulb and batteries),
  • Bottled water (1 litre as a minimum),
  • Pocket money (Soles) to buy some beverages and souvenirs, as well as to tip.

LODGE

 

Lodge Manu National Park

 

MANU NATIONAL PARK STUDY AREA.
The Biological Station Pakicza (11 “56 ’47” S, 71 “17′ 00” W) is a scientific station operated by the Biological Diversity Program in Latin America (BIOLAT) of the Smithsonian Institute, National Manu, approximately 65 km upstream from the mouth of the river Manu, in the Madre de Dios, Manu Province, Mother Department Weather data from the Cocha Cashu Biological Station, 21 km upstream from Pakitza, indicate an average annual precipitation of 2,080 mm, with a dry season between May and September, and an annual average temperature of 24.1 ° C. The vegetation of Tropical Humid Forest of the place has been defined As “low altitude seasonal sempervirent forest (Kalliola etal, 1987). The elevation of Pakitza is of 356 ms. Although there has been some selective logging throughout the region prior to the park’s creation in 1970, the degree of human intervention has been minimal. Erwin (1991) describes in detail the

Habitats of Pakitza. In the study area we sampled bats in the following environments:
1) Forest of terrace: forest not intervened with a forest canopy of 50 – 60 m, mainly in trails.
2) Forest ravines: small tributaries of slow course and approximately 5-10 m wide, partially covered by the crowns of the trees on the banks.
3) Forest edges: clear boundaries of the biological season.
4) Riparian forest: vegetation of 10 – 20 m on both sides of the banks of no.
5) River banks: sandy piayas on both sides of the river Manu and Quebrada Pachija (tributano of the northeast margin of the Manu, c 5 km upstream of Pakitza). We put some nets in the same channel of the rivers.
Methods
In Pakitza we captured bats in different 1987, from September 5 to 24, 1988, from October 31 to November 15 1990 and from 13 February to 9 March 1992. The capture effort in each habitat .Every month was 1 – 10 nights. Although in all the samples we use networks Of fog placed in the undergrowth (0.5 – 5 m), in the months of November, and 594 .Diversity and Ecology of the Chiroptera in Pakitza February – March we use some networks located at levels of their forest canopy (5 -> 20 m). Some specimens were collected annually in daytime shelters. Networks open at 5:30 p.m. and closed at 6 p.m. were reviewed every 30 min. The captured bats were kept in individual canvas bags, identified measured (forearm length weight). Reproductive condition Of the females (pregnant or lacquered) was determined by external examination. The study specimens of each species were preserved and deposited in the Collections of the Natural Museum of the National Major University of San Marcos in Lima, Peru, and in the National Museum of Natural History of Washington, D.C., U.S.A. Faecal samples collected during the November, and February – March, samplings were extracted from the canvas bags and placed in paper sachets, dried and stored until analysis. In the laboratory, these samples were rehydrated and examined under a stereoscope microscope, recognizing remains of insects, pollen grains, vegetable pulp or seeds. The latter were separated and identified by comparison with the Reference Collection of the Seed Dispersion Project of the Research Center of the Peruvian Amazon Research Institute (HAP), Iquitos, Peru. Similarly, we record the time and habitat of each captured individual. In the November sampling, and February-March, the capture height in the network was also included. Proofs, (Sokal and Rohlf, 1969) were used in the analysis of habitat use, vertical stratification, and nocturnal activity of species with more than 10 individuals captured in order to discriminate random distributions .

MANU NATIONAL PARK RESERVE CENTER .

The Manu Biosphere Reserve is one of the most pristine areas  of wildlife   the Amazon Peru  this  find  in the  Manu River  in the park, No activities are performed as  hunting or fishing. This Reserve is very strictly controlled and visitors are only allows them with their tickets and the guides with their professional card especially with its operator agency of the Manu National Reserve. Where all the time will be with your guide from your departure from the city of Cusco until your return to the city of Cusco .Tours to reserve Manu national park must be organized in advance, To have not have any problems with your fixed departures to the Manu tour .The Manu  National Park Reserve  Center ( Biosphere ) consists of three zones .

LOCATION EXTENSION AND ZONES OF THE MANU NATIONAL PARK.

Is located in the southern part of Peru in the departments of Madre de Dios and Cusco Province of Manu and Paucartambo Occupies Territories of the districts of fitzcarralt of the province of Manu and district of Challabamba and Qosñipata of the province of Paucartambo comprises all the The Manu River basin and the left bank of the Madre Madre River; Comprises in 65% to the department of Madre de Dios 35% to the department of Cusco

 

MANU RESERVE LODGE COCHA OTORONGO – JUNGLE TRIPS

 

 

 

 

 

OUR LODGE IN MANU CULTURE ZONE – MANU NATIONAL PARK

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Confirmed departures of the Manu National Park – Tour jungle trips:

Manu Rainforest Lodge in Jungle Trips

MANU NATIONAL PARK: The Manu National Park is situated in Southeastern Peru where it covers 1.9 Million hectares. Around 6500 Quechua and 2000 Amazonian peoples are living inside the Reserve. The Manu National Park is concerned by 3 major biogeographically provinces (the Puna, the Yungas and the Amazonian provinces). It ranges from 200 to 4020 m a.s.1. Combined with topographic, soil and climate conditions; The Manu National Park is characterized by a very high level of diversity (Natural World Heritage Site). Some of the .wildlife species are endangered.

The Manu National Park is composed of 3 main areas:  ( Manu National Park) devoted to conservation, a buffer area including indigenous territories and private ecological reserves, a transition area with bio geographical boundaries and experimental, application and traditional use areas. The biological station of Cocha Cachu allows to carry out different researches on biological species. and ecosystems. An inventory of the biodiversity was undertaken in  Manu National Park since 1987. Planning and monitoring research are also performed in the core and buffer areas. An applied research programed aims to set up sustained management of biological resources such as Cedrela odorate and Podocnemis unfilms. Since 1991 an agroforestry project has been initiated (soil fertility, fallow agriculture) and complemented by studies on animal husbandry systems, fodder for ruminants and fishery resources. Indigenous population’s ownership of the land is recognized by the State (traditional use area). Colonization around The Manu National Park took place during the forties with logging and farming activities. Resident populations have access to natural resources through mining subsistence farming and cattle rising. An integrated conservation and development project of the Manu National Park aims to manage the resource base, to improve social and economic development and to extend

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Manu Rainforest Lodge in Jungle Trips

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GALLERY

THE MANU NATIONAL PARK HAS THREE ZONES

The Core or Natural Zone. What is coming to make the intangible area that covers an area of 1,532,806 hectares is the indigenous territory where the traditional use of land is made, without any restrictions for native groups, where it is prohibited to enter Tourists and any strange person without authorization from the headquarter of the Manu national park.
 The Reservation Zone  : Consists of an area of 257,000 hectares assigned to Tourism and to researchers with a rational treatment of resources
The Transitional or Cultural Zone of Manu National Park. It covers an area of 91,394 hectares where the colonists and some indigenous communities of Machiguengas are found, forming a buffer zone in the core of the Manu National Park, where there are no restrictions on economic activities, as can be seen in our maps. Three areas that make up the Manu National Reserve contains 13 different ecological zones ranging in altitude from 200m to 4,000m, meaning that it has an incredible variety of flora and fauna.
Excursions to Manu National Park are expensive as (Manu Biosphere Reserve) (Manu Cultural Zone) However; it is sometimes possible to get discounts at official prices. If an agency has a fixed departure for a day or two if it still has spaces, it may be willing to offer our departure date are fixed for this 2017 (if you have a date available for the tour to the Manu we need a deposit of 50 % Min of people 2 maximum 10 you can make your reservation with our company Manu Jungle Trips .
The international companies operate the Manu Reservation with their own mobility as land transport, and river transport and that have their own land and shelter that leave no income to the communities and indigenous peoples who for years and centuries kept this reserve in their natural habitat today consider just some agencies that try to be along with them giving income work for your family.
Generating work for the local population inside and outside the Manu National Park reserve

BOOK NOW

You can use the following form to Booking Now Manu Jungle Trips in Cusco, Puerto Maldonado, Peru. We will get back to you as soon as possible.

E-mails: info@manujungletrips.com / bookingmanutrips@hotmail.com

Comments or questions are welcome.

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Contact or Book your tours with your inquiries to MANU JUNGLE TRIPS:

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Customer Service in Peru: 051 (84) 255527

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Emails:

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FREE INFORMATION MANU BIOSPHERE

3) Description of the Manu Biosphere Reserve and the Manu National Park: In 1977 the Man and Biosphere Program of UNESCO declared the Manu Biosphere Reserve (MBR) which includes the Manu National Park (MNP) as the core area. The original boundaries of the reserve included the entire Manu river basin and the left bank of the Alto Madre de Dios River. The total area encompasses 1,9 million hectares (19 000 km2) (Map 1).the reserve is located in South-Eastern Peru, in the provinces of The Manu National Park and Paucartambo, departments of Madre de Dios and Cusco, respectively (Map 2).

Manu National Park (The Biosphere Reserve’s Core area) established in 1973 covers an area of 1,5 million hectares (15 000 km2), its largest portion lying in the Madre de ,Dios department and a smaller part in the department of Cuzco. The Amazon lowland tropical  Manu National Park rainforest in Madre de Dios is considered as the region in the world with the most wide-ranging biological diversity within protected areas, containing world-record numbers of species of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, freshwater fish and plants. Map 1 : Manu Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO – 1977) Scale,500,OOO

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Map 2 : Location of  Manu National Park . The Manu National Park encompasses the territory of the Quechua people in the highlands and different indigenous groups in the lowland. These cultural and racially mixed groups are an expression of the area’s cultural diversity. The Manu National Park includes territories with altitudes that exceed 4,000 m a. s. 1. A view of the Control Post in Acjanaco in the High Andean Grassland or “Puna The population in the Andean highlands includes the “Queros”, the most closely related to the Inca civilization. These people still maintain their ancient culture and customs and are considered a living vestige of the Inca Andean culture. These groups live in the higher part of the 34 apacho river basin, a transition area of the Manu National Park Given the tremendous cultural value of this area, its “formal” integration into the MBR has been proposed. The expansion of the MBR is therefore vitally important as an area for conserving a significant part of the Andean and Amazonian cultural heritage and this significance is considered of equal importance to the park’s biological value. Approximately 6 500 Andean peasants live in the south-west area near the park’s boundaries. The Alto Madre de Dios basin includes indigenous groups with different cultures and levels of contact; five native communities with land titles were identified, others have been acknowledged and are negotiating their land titles. However, there are some groups living in the most remote parts of the National Park and in the Las Piedras river basin, who have virtually no contact at all and whose survival habits are primitive.

The indigenous groups in the MBR and the transition areas include the “Machiguenga” (Matsiguenka), the most highly populated of the groups in the Alto Madre de, Dios and The Manu National Park river basins; the Huachipaeries and Amaracaeris concentrated in the upper Alto Madre de Dios river basin; the “Mashco Piros” within the Manu National Park area and the Piedras river basin; the “Yoras” or “Yaminahuas” near the headwaters of the Manu National Parkand others such as the “Amahuacas” with land near the headwaters of the Put-us and Piedras rivers. Indigenous groups such as the “Piros” also live in this area. The population of the Amazonian native groups inside the park includes Approximately 1000 people. Another 1000 people in the transition zone of the Alto Madre de Dios river are also lowland natives (APECO, 1994). The mixed race population who have settled in the Alto Madre de Dios are mainly outsiders from rural Andean areas such as Puno, Cuzco and Apurimac, who have not adapted their cultural customs to the environment The areas in which these people are most highly concentrated are the Blanco, Azul and Colorado river basins, where it is estimated there are about 10 000 people involved in gold mining

Manu Tour

5) Natural Features. Biodiversity :The Manu National Park includes a whole range of habitats on the eastern slope of the Andes in Southeast Peru, extending from the “Puna” or “Paramo” in the highlands at 4 02Om to the tropical ram forest in the lowlands at 200 m.Three of the seven bio-geographic provinces identified in Peru (1975)-The Puna, the Yungas and the Amazonia provinces- are found within the park’s boundaries The Manu National Park contains the best sample of the “Amazon province in Peru protected within the National System of state-protected areas (SINAIWE) so far, and the best and largest sample of the protected “Yungas” province. On a national scale, this is equivalent to 2,6%; more than half of the protected “Puna” area at a national level is within this park’s boundaries. The Manu National Park includes the entire upper and middle drainage of the Manu River System and upper drainage of the tributaries on the left bank of the Alto Madre de Dios Specific climatological information on the park is still very limited. A nearby village at the base of the mountains, Quince Mil, registers over 10 m of annual rainfall, the highest in Peru (Terborch, 1990). Its name ‘Quince Mil’ (Fifteen Thousand) originates from the levels of rainfall recorded in the past. The combination of topographic, climatic and soil conditions creates a diversity of environments. According to the “Ecological Map of Peru” (ONERN, 1976) there are at least 13 different “life zones” within the park’s boundaries. The Madre de Dios region in Peru is possibly one of the richest areas in the world as far as biodiversity is concerned. Preliminary inventories and scientific studies of flora and fauna took place mainly in the Cocha Cashu Biological Station in Manu (Terborch, 1983). A number of studies of birds (Robinson and Terborch, 1990) mammals (Janson and Emmons, 1990) and plants (Foster, 1990) have all stressed the biological wealth of Manu. Collections from the Manu river have produced 3 228 species, 1 382 general and 249 families. (Foster,1990). Scott, R. and Terborch, J. (1990) mention that the western Amazonia forest contains the richest and least disturbed bird communities in the World.as regards the birds of four Neotropical forest sites -La Selva compared The Manu National Park other Amazon areas. Preliminary surveys by Lamas, G., Robbins, R. and Harvey, D (1991) in the Manu National Park.

CONSERVATION SIGNIFICANCE MANU NATIONAL PARK: The Manu National Park is one of the most important protected areas in the Amazon region and is considered the most important conservation area of Peru’s National System of Natural State-Protected Areas (SINANPE), besides being declared as a Biosphere Reserve in 1977, the Manu National Park was also declared a UNESCO “Natural World Heritage Site” in 1986, due to its outstanding natural value .Due to its numerous advantages for scientific research purposes, its biodiversity and the presence of several ethnic groups who still maintain their traditional knowhow and culture, The Manu National Park is outstanding among the world’s . The Manu National Park Dr. John Terborch (UNA-CEPID, 1986) who has been carrying out research studies in The Manu National Park since 1972, emphasized its scientific value, as follows: The incredible wealth of its flora and fauna remains untouched by civilization. The fauna includes more than 800 species of birds -more than any other park in the world. In addition, estimates reveal 200 species of mammals, including those in danger of extinction such as the grant river otter (Preronura brasilensis). This wealth provides unlimited Opportunities for biological studies. This is a natural environment guaranteed by a system of game wardens. Without an absolute control of furtive hunting, it would be impossible to contemplate establishing long term studies. Due to the lack of an adequate cannoli in the parks tropical there is no such other propitious place in the entire Amazon river basil. This is the only park in Latin America that includes the entire environments between the low tropical forest and the subalpine scrub land. This environmental diversity is very valuable for studying the factors that restrict the distribution of species The Manu National Park. It also provides the opportunity to gain a better understanding of natural, geological and biological processes in the different life zones on the Andean slopes. The park is appropriate as a control area for any type of environmental evaluation. The scientific appraisal of the effects of “development” on the wild animal population, the productivity of vegetation, soil fertility, the quality of water, the erosion rate, etc. could not be carried out without such control areas. The park is an ideal setting for basic studies on the productivity of economically important animals and plants. It is virtually the only place in this country in which monkeys and other large animals can be directly observed in their large natural habitat. Likewise, valuable ties such as cedar, “guano” and no longer exist in other places. There is a lack of basic studies on the natural regeneration of these and other economically important species The Manu National Park. It will be impossible to take advantage of these renewable resources (outside the protected area) until such studies are made. The Manu National Park contains the last good populations of certain species in danger of extinction,such as the grant otter Pteronura brasilensis, the black caiman Meianosuchus Niger and the “taricaya” Podocnemis unifilis. Although these three species play a very prominent role in the history of the Peruvian jungle The Manu National Park, because of their universal over-exploitation their contribution has dropped to virtually nothing. The same occurs with certain trees such as cedar Cedrela odorata and mahogany Swietenia macrophylla. In order to re-incorporate these species into the national economy, healthy large enough populations are required, not only for study purposes but also as sources of a new genetic material for re-introducing the species in areas where they have disappeared. In general, the tremendously wealthy flora and fauna in the park could serve as The Manu National Park national store of biotic resources. In many cases, due advantage has not been taken of these resources because of the lack of research work. As a result of the research efforts of over 10 years, Cocha Cashu has the largest ecological data base in the entire Amazon basin. This data base is tremendously useful to researchers and not only enhances the scientific value of the biological station, but of the entire The Manu National Park contains the entire Manu river basin and parts of certain tributaries of the Alto Madre de Dios river. Consequently, the watershed is not polluted in any way. Rivers of such purity no longer exist in many parts of the world, including the 48 states of the U.S.A.

The Manu National Park could therefore be used as a model for calculating the production of fish and for studies on the effects of pollution and erosion. The Manu National Park is one of the last places in the world where the customs and lifestyles of indigenous tribes have remained unchanged. Consequently, there are excellent opportunities for anthropological studies on the sustained use of environmental resources by human beings. There are also good opportunities for discovering new medicinal plants. A scientific knowledge of the natural history, anthropology and archaeological of The Manu National Park could make it much more appealing for tourism purposes.

OBJECTIVES OF THE RESERVE MANU NATIONAL PARK

Biosphere Reserves are designed to protect representative areas of ecological importance all over the world. The objectives of UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere Program (MAB) include the protection of landscapes and nature, the sustainable use of natural resources, the promotion of scientific research and public awareness of environmental issues. It is intended that the Manu Biosphere Reserve (MBR) should serve to demonstrate how man can use natural resources in a sustainable manner.

ZONING OF THE RESERVEMANU NATIONALPARK
Three large areas or zones are considered in the MBR.
1. The Core Area
2. The Buffer Area
3. The Transition Area (influence area, cooperation area, etc.).
According to the Manu National Park’s Master plan (UNA-CEPID, 1986) within
these three areas it is possible to locate specific areas or area associations, based on the following roles of The Manu National Park
A natural intangible area for preserving resources on site.
An experimental area used for experimental work and for developing models for
the sustained use of resources.
An application area for the rehabilitation or recovery of defaced areas.
Traditional use areas (cultural zone) for maintaining and developing traditional
use systems.
1) The Core Area of the Manu National Park :Given its characteristics  Manu National Park can easily be qualified as the core ofthe MBR, for the following reasons: .
* Its natural wild state.
* It represents three different bio-geographical provinces – Puna, Yungas,
Amazonica.
* It is physically capable of maintaining, u its ecological processes as a natural
sample of perpetuity. * There are relatively minor conflicts regarding the use of the land within and outside the area, with facilities for an effective protection.
* It is public property.
2) The Buffer Zone
The Buffer Zone generally surrounds the core area. In the case of the MBR, this
buffer zone is being set up gradually. One of the areas to be used as a screen to protect thelower course of the Manu river is The Manu National Park (257 000 ha) which actually has an extension proposal to protect an indigenous group without contact with the outside world known as the “Mashco Piro”.As a rule, such areas require a basically natural environment. In The Manu National Park Zone, scientific research and tourism activities predominate and other activities such as logging and the management of forestry resources and wildlife have been suspended. The Indigenous territory of the Mascho Piro (Pinken river) will continue totally closed to any kind of activities. Another area considered as a buffer zone is the “State Reserve for the Nahna- Kugapakoric indigenous population” in the North-eastern sector of the Park. An additional protected area established in the region (Pong0 Mainique) which includes the headwaters of the Ticupinia river in the Alto Urubamba river basin, would be added to this zone. The Manu National Park Other areas to be included as buffer zones in the eastern sector are indigenous Territories with no contact, pertaining to the Amahuaca groups in the Las Piedras river basin. In addition, there is a proposal to establish a protected area referred to as “Megantoni in the west. In view of the existence of indigenous groups who have no contact with the eastern sector of the Park bordering the Las Piedras river basin, it is also necessary to establish another Reserve for these groups, which could also serve as a Buffer Zone. The possibility of establishing this reserve is still being studied. The indigenous territories (Native Communities) established bordering the Park are good buffer zones on the basis of the stable, permanent and ancestral nature of the indigenous communities and their appropriate resources use pattern.In areas where it was impossible to award land titles to indigenous people or where the soil was not suitable for farming or forestry it is possible -to establish Communal Reserves or Protection Forest. Both are categories of protected areas which allow local inhabitants -including indigenous people, some use of forest extractive resources (medicinal plants, food, etc.) and wildlife, but not timber extraction or commercial logging. At least two proposals for the establishment of this kind of areas are under study currently. Besides, there ae another possible kind of buffer areas, like the so-called “private ecological
Reserves” or private tourism areas, and right now there are two already set up: Pillahuata and Union in the forest known as “Bosque de Nube” or cloud forest. Finally, the establishment of new protected areas (protection forests) was proposed in order to protect the headwaters of river basins and steep areas, mainly the protection forests of Kosñipata Pantiacolla. 3) The Transition Area The core area and the buffer area are surrounded by a transition area, which is not strictly demarcated and comprises bio-geographical rather than political boundaries. As far as the MBR is concerned, the entire Alto Madre de Dios river basin was considered, from its origin in the snow-capped mountains, including the basins of the Mapacho, Yavero, Urubamba, Sepahua, Las Piedras, Los Amigos and Madre de Dios rivers, more or less as far as the Boca Colorado village (Map So far, the Alto Madre de Dios river basin has deserved special attention due to the fact that the headways of the tributaries on the left bank of this river form part of the core area and the pressure exercised in the Tono-Guadalupe sector by migrants from the Andean highlands is one of the greatest problems currently encountered in the Park. This is why conservation and development projects have concentrated on these areas and specific management areas have been defined.

THE AMAZON MANU NATIONAL PARK : A small, unremarkable peak called Quehuisha, in the Department of Arequipa is home to the headwaters of the immense Amazon River. It springs from permafrost in these high altitudes. From this source .of water, springs the Apacheta River, which in the valley joins a river with great volume, the Carhuasanta, which afterwards takes the name Loqueta. As it carries more and more water from successive tributaries there is another change of name to Challamayo and then Homillos until it becomes the Apurimac and then the Ucayali River. The plain widens and further ahead, when the Ucayali joins the Maranon, it gives birth to the magnificent river called Amazon. The Amazon then flows its full course of 7,100 km to the Atlantic ocean. There is a plunge in elevation in the Amazon system initially but once outside the Andes, it drops only about 1.5 cm/km (2 in/mi). The world’s longest river is the Nile, which just exceeds the Amazon. However, the Amazon carries by far the world’s largest volume of water, containing about 20% of the world’s sweet/fresh water. Once, the Amazon River flowed in the opposite direction, which meant that it drained into the Pacific Ocean near what is today the port city of Guayaquil, Ecuador. The current belief is that the change to the present west-to-east course came about as recently as 15 million years ago. The cause of this profound alteration is thought to be the Andean uplift, which also affected patterns of biogeography throughout the Amazon Basin. At first the uplift of the Andes created a gigantic lake. This lake was bordered on the west by the newly arisen mountain chain and on the east by the extensive Guiana and Brazilian shields. Finally, the Amazon made its way to the Atlantic during the Pleistocene. It cut through its eastern barrier near Obidos, Brazil. The altered course of the river water eastward probably dispersed the many widespread trees that can be found along the river in Manu National Park

Manu National Park : The Hike in the Manu National Park covers extraordinary geography Manu encompasses series of distinct biologic spheres that range from Andean highlands of up to 4,020 m.a.s.l. (13,700 ft) to tropical lowlands of only 365 m.a.s.l. (1,200 ft) The Manu National Park Tour also includes a visit of the Lakes Salvador and Otorongo. The latter is a habitat to the world’s most endangered species For that reason, contact with people has to be minimized to provide them with safety and enable them long term conservation in manu national Park

Manu National Park : The flow dynamic of the river can become unstable (typically during the high water period) During this instability, it is possible that the river will cut a new channel. This effectively isolates a meander and creates an “oxbow lake”. When rivers are subject to a variable flood cycle, these oxbow lakes are common. An oxbow lake is a habitat of essentially standing water, providing yet another kind of riverine habitat, where water stagnates rather than flows rapidly. These lakes are plentifully stocked with fish and rich in nutrients. This enables them to give life to other kind of animals and plants. The most well-known inhabitants of the oxbow-lakes are the giant otters and the black caimans. Many bird species live only on the oxbow lakes: Green ibis, Purple gallinule, Rufescent Tiger Heron, Agami heron, Grakes, are a few examples In Manu National Park

Inside the Reserved Zone between Boca Manu village and Pakitza Park ranger station there are more .Than one dozen big oxbow lakes. Of these 6 are considered to be useful for tourism. These are (from Boca Manu to upstream): Juarez, Otorongo, , Salvador and Gallereta. The Salvador Lake itself is possibly a hundred years old. It is about 200 meters wide and about 4 kilometers long. View picture of the Manu National Park.

 

 

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