Manu National Park Imagenes

Manu National Park Imagenes jungle its biogeography, conservation and aquatic life of an important region between the Andes and the Amazon in Peru’s southeastern: the Madre de Dios River. The Andean-Amazonian region headers form an arc of 4000 km long that starts in Colombia to the north, and extends to Bolivia in the south. It is a border region for science, in which the aquatic ecology is still poorly known. The header area, between the Andes and the Amazon Peru, is known in much of the world mainly as the place where coca is grown to produce cocaine that nourishes the international market. However, this region currently suffers dramatic changes by the man who quickly transform their forests and rivers in the jungle manu national park

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Knowledge of the ecology of headwater is important for proper management of watersheds, because the negative impacts that may arise there be exported waters below, and in the case of the Madre de Dios river, not only to the end southeast of Peru only reserve  in the world manu national park , but also to Bolivia and Brazil and Amazon Peru.

The Madre de Dios River is suitable to begin to understand the dynamics of the headwaters of the Andean Amazonian rivers and discover the amazing wildlife marine life that exists in the upper region of the great Amazon wildlife center site. The creation of the Manu National Park and then Tambopata Bahuaja Sonene and Conservation Concession Los Amigos, made the Madre de Dios region of one of the most promising areas for conservation projects in the basin long-term Amazon peru. However, natural protected areas of the forest by themselves do not guarantee the protection of life in rivers, especially in the case of migratory species that abound in the basin of the Madre de Dios River start from the manu national park and Amazon Expedition and tambopata tours and sandoval lake.

amazon wildlife and Modern ecology teaches that headwater should be seen as a vital component of ecosystems; Also, human activities therein must be considered as critical. As the Peruvian State and some entrepreneurs continue to extract resources from the Upper Madre de Dios – Puerto Maldonado, populations will increase, and with them, the threats to the forest in amazon peru. The establishment of protected areas was the first significant step towards the conservation of the headwaters of the Madre de Dios River in the manu  national park ; Now the challenge is to integrate the concept of the complex system header ecological interactions that form the rivers, forests, wildlife and human activities in the forest. In order to facilitate this process some chapters present below the jungle for defining the concept of headwater and the impact of human activities on aquatic environments Field Trips – Amazon Peru – Jungle Trips – Manu Wildlife – Amazon Peru – Amazon Trail.

manu national park

Amazon Trail: According to its elevation, the basin of the Madre de Dios River can be divided into two distinct areas: the Andes and the Amazon Plain. The Amazonian lowlands or lowlands are located approximately 350 meters above sea level and covered with rainforest. Extensive aguajales qualify the rivers and jungle landscape. Much of the floodplain is also covered by rainforests amazon . The Andean Basin of Madre de Dios River rises to 5000 meters above sea level and, usually, the Andean peaks are located just 150 kilometers from the Amazonian lowlands in manu national park . In other words, there is a big drop in the topography of the eastern side of the Andes and the Amazon lowlands. There are of course various climatic and vegetation between the snowy peaks and lowland areas. To understand how the elevation models the region of the headwaters of the Madre de Dios River, Later we will see an overview of the eastern side of the Vilcanota mountain range, located in southeastern Peru, types of rivers and vegetation that covers and protects the slopes in different climatic zones of the Peruvian jungle this reserve finding in manu national park and sandoval lake.

The rainforest amazon peru and rivers meandering course are the main characteristics of the lowland region of Madre de Dios River. Meanders double the length of the Madre de Dios River and most of its tributaries, significantly increasing the area of marshes and shores. The lowland forest amazon in the vicinity of the Andes is a giant receiver alluvial material deposited by rivers. The relatively rich soils are usually associated with alluvial material from the Andes. Many biologists argue, today, that the accumulation of nutrients in this area is the cause of its high biodiversity or, at least, of the high density of terrestrial and arboreal mammals recorded in the region of Madre de Dios finding in the reserve manu national park . Both onshore and floodplains are covered by a rich rainforest species. Most of the rivers flowing through the region of Madre de Dios are high turbidity, which changes seasonally. The forest has an overview of the landscape of the rainforest and rivers in the lowlands of Madre de Dios basin in amazon wildlife – Manu Tour – Manu Blanquillo.

Amazon Wildlife Most people interested in the nature of the forest or conservation is identified with the wildlife in the jungle. The very definition of the meaning of aquatic life in the Amazon Peru is subjective. The Mother of God, for example, has huge river flooded forests with a wide variety of birds, mammals and invertebrates unknown numbers. Because flooded forests have many species that are not in the mainland, we can say that it is definitely an aquatic ecosystem of the forest. Actually, flooded forests shared by most animal species with upland forests, but many others show a predilection for the lowlands located along rivers in the jungle. The forest shows us its fish, turtles, alligators and giant otter or otter. They are vertebrates that spend most of their life in the water in the Peruvian jungle in Manu National Peru.

amazon wildlife

Certainly, the fish are by far the most diverse aquatic vertebrates in the basin of the Madre de Dios River group: its waters there are probably about 600 species, most of them still waiting to be scientifically described. There are also several species of turtles, four species of alligators v two otters, although only deal in this book about the giant otter. Something the fish, turtles, alligators and otters have in common, besides living in the aquatic environment is suffering in one way or another the impact of human activities. All of the large fish and all varieties of turtles, alligators and otters are hunted or fished. These groups include precisely to aquatic wildlife species of greatest interest to the public interested in conservation and wildlife. They, at the same time, must be seen as key elements that indicate the health of rivers and other aquatic habitats in the Peruvian jungle – Field Trips – Amazon Peruvian – Manu Center – Manu Trips.

Because of its great diversity and short of our knowledge of most of its species, fish have been the great challenge of this book. Many of the scientific names we use on life in the Peruvian jungle and its flora and fauna of the Amazon is best known. Nevertheless, we present the first sample color has been made over the fish of Andean-Amazon region. Many of the species shown here correspond to catches in the rivers Madre de Dios and Los Amigos, which we consider representative of the fish wealth of the lowland basin of the Madre de Dios River. Also see more about the rainforest fish samples the Andean slopes and higher elevations in the Amazonian Andes, where diversity is much more limited, but whose composition differs significantly with that of the lowlands to Amazon Fields and Manu National Park.

Realistic conservation initiatives are those that are based on a wide range of cultural and biological considerations. These considerations, however, are still poorly understood within the scope of the ecosystems of the Amazon peru Basin. Practically all countries of the Amazon basin are connected ecologically, especially through the rivers. Current can flow downstream, but many of the most important species of fish migrate upstream from Brazil and Bolivia to spawn in the Peruvian headwaters. That is why all Amazon countries should pay special attention to the conservation of headwaters region, inter alia, by the role they play in maintaining the hydrological cycle and the huge variety of wildlife species that inhabit its waters. One purpose of Manu Jungle Trips is starting a comprehensive overview of one of the most important areas of the Amazonian Andes header, the Madre de Dios River. Peru Amazon tours – Our desire is to provide the reader with all the geographical and ecological information about the beauty and diversity of aquatic fauna in the basin of the Madre de Dios River and concepts needed to make the Peruvian jungle is preserved.

THE AMAZON RIVER HEADERS – MANU NATIONAL PARK

To provide for the extension of what we now call the Manu National Park, it is easy to imagine the awe and intrigued explorers  to direct their gaze to the west, still wondering where would go the Andean torrential streams that lands below form the large rivers of the Amazon Peru. Similarly, the Tupi fishermen standing on the rocks overlooking the roaring Niagara Madeira in Brazil today, must have speculated about where born the mighty river that gave life to his people. Modern maps clearly we respond to these questions from where the Madeira River or any other river comes and where it goes. However, the idea of ​​headers or sources is a concept that is gaining slowly. Mapping of today has brought the era of geographical discoveries, and also announced it was amazing discoveries of ecological forest. The discovery of the role and importance of critical ecosystems has been perhaps the greatest achievements of ecology in the last three or four decades in amazon trail.

The notion of headers as a critical component of river ecosystems in Manu National Park is   conservation of aquatic environments is not questioned in the scientific and environmental circles, as it is known to the degradation of the upper reaches of a watershed affect its course downstream, including a large distances in the jungle Amazon . However, the extraordinary size of the Amazon peru basin and fragmentation within the territories of six countries have overshadowed the ecological importance of the headers in the jungle. While this river focuses on southeastern Peru, we first present an overview of the headwaters of the Amazon peru , give an overview of the headers in Madre de Dios and where they fit within the entire Amazon system in Amazon Expedition

The headwaters of the Amazon River – Manu Jungle Trips – Manu National Park

The Amazon Wildlife basin has three major headwater regions: the Andes, the Brazilian massif and the massif of the Guianas. The drains of the massifs of Brazil and the Guianas are almost entirely in Brazilian territory. These clumps are remnants of ancient highlands were leveled by millions of years of constant erosion. The rivers that drain these ancient elevations carry little sediment, in contrast to those that originate in the high Andes, as the Mother of God. The turbid water, from an ecological point of view, is the most important factor for all tributaries of the Amazon that have their headwaters in the Andes. The meeting of the Andes and the Amazon wildlife forms a large area of ​​rivers with large amounts of sediment, which extends from north of the equator, in Colombia, to near 18 degrees south latitude in Bolivia. Relatively high levels of nutrients are often associated with the murky waters, and may rich alluvial soils that make up this area are supported by the greatest biodiversity in this amazon wildlife center.

From Colombia to Bolivia in the north to the south, there are at least eight major regions headwaters of the Amazon wildlife system. Each has unique and particular ecological and cultural characteristics. From a flow perspective, Brazil represents the lower parts of all headers located in the Andes, and no part of Brazil reaches the Andes. Colombia in the north, is not lower any headers from another country, although the Putumayo River is shared with Ecuador and Peru. Peru has a lower parts of the headwaters in Ecuador, where the headwaters of the Napo River are located. Bolivia Peru is lower in the basin of the Madre de Dios River. Colombia is completely removed from the headwaters of the Madre de Dios River biging of the Manu National Park and manu wildlife center.

Putumayo Rivers Caquetáy headers form a region in Colombia, although a small portion of Putumayo is shared by Peru and Ecuador. During the last three decades, eastern Colombia, has been totally unprotected except for some small areas, and under the control of the guerrillas. This makes it unlikely and unrealistic any draft environmental planning in the area until you have free and safe access to the valleys of Caquetá and Putumayo river access. The headwaters region of the Napo River is located mostly in Ecuador, the smallest of the countries of the Amazon wildlife basin. Colonization and expansion of agricultural land is progressing very rapidly in this area, while in the lowlands is the heart of Ecuador’s oil industry, the main source of foreign exchange for the country. Oil pollution has been a local problem in the headwaters of the Napo.

Amazon Peru has four major regions: header-the Maranon river Huallaga, the Pachitea river, the river Ucayali and Madre de Dios River. Most of the Marañón River and its main tributary, the Huallaga River, is located in the jungle, ie, in an area of ​​valleys that make the transition between the highlands and the jungle. The upper and middle portions of these valleys have been severely altered due to human activity. The bottom of the Marañón River runs from west to east v is found in Amazonian wildlife  plains below 350 meters. Another major tributary of the Marañón is under the Pastaza River, which originates in the Andean highlands of Ecuador. This deforestation is reduced, but tends to increase as oil exploration and exploitation are settling in the area. The largest protected area in this region is the Pacaya Samiria National Reserve, located between the confluence of the Marañón and Ucayali rivers in amazon wildlife center.

The Ucayali river is regarded by cartographers as the headwaters of the Amazon wildife  River, as the furthest from the mouth of the Amazon wildlife river point lies in the Upper Ucayali, in 6400 or 6800 miles away, depending on the estimate you want to accept . The top of the Ucayali River is characterized by its high, dry mountain landscape, which has been painstakingly worked by preincaico man for over a millennium. At the expense of a large area of ​​tropical forests, an intense colonization has followed the course of the valley of the Vilcanota and Urubamba River. The middle and lower reaches of the river Ucayali-including its main tributary, the river has Pachitea-flood large areas of forest and meandering rivers in good condition. However, the headwaters of the river Pachitea have been severely deforested. There are very few protected areas in the valley of the Ucayali River in amazon Peru.

The region south of the headwaters of the Amazon wildlife  is located in the Madeira River basin, which covers about 20% of the total area of the Amazon wildlife basin. Before focusing our attention on the Madre de Dios River, main theme of this book, we briefly describe the basins of the Beni and Mamore. The Mamore River comprises the principal tax Madeira River basin. The headwaters of the Chapare River are located in Upper Mamore in Bolivia. This region has become almost synonymous with cultivation of coca, the base product for the manufacture of cocaine. National and international programs to find alternatives to the illegal cultivation have caused the deforestation of much of the Chapare region. Meanwhile, conflict with drug traffickers continue and no portion of its territory has been protected. In addition, intense agricultural settlement along the road Cochabamba – Sierra de la Cruz has further contributed to the deforestation of mountain forests, known as Yungas in amazon Peru.

The headwaters of the Beni region river almost reaches Bolivia’s capital, La Paz, just over 3500 meters above sea level. Almost all areas in the valley of the Beni River, about 2000 meters, have been severely transformed by agricultural activity since the arrival of Europeans. Most of the low mountain region still lacks fundamental communication and deforestation is still small in trips. The Madidi National Park protects much of the northern slopes of the headwaters region of the Beni River.

The Madre de Dios River – Manu National Park – Manu Jungle Trips:

The Madre de Dios River is of Manu National Park, is a tributary of the Beni river trips, and this is the main tributary of the Madeira in average annual discharge. All the headwaters of the Madre de Dios River are in Peru. Give an accurate meaning a header definition is difficult because you can not describe a rigid terms. However, in the case of the tributaries of the Amazon peru from the Andes for trips, we can say that their headers include drainage mountain and reservoir area alluvial sediments extending approximately to a distance of 100 to 150 kilometers of the Andes trail. This broad definition, which includes the relationship between the Andes and the lowland areas subject to deposition, it makes sense in ecological terms in trails, because it is a region mainly formed by meandering rivers in constant motion. While there are some areas of the Peru Amazon basin characterized by meandering rivers intensely-like Purus and Jurua in Brazil for trips, which do not come from the Andes, meandering production is almost a personal signature in the lower region of the Andean headwaters Amazon wildlife center peru.

The basin of the Madre de Dios River covers approximately 90 000 square kilometers, equivalent to 50% of the Beni River basin and 7% of the Madeira Basin. Fifty percent of the valley of Madre de Dios River is located in Peruvian territory, constituting the northernmost headwaters of the Madeira River basin. The region of the headwaters of the Mother of God can be defined as the area semitriangular forming watersheds of the Tambopata River, Stones River basin and all the Madre de Dios River above these tributaries. The northern tributaries of the Madre de Dios – Manu National Park  Friends and Stones-are lowland rivers. Of these, only the Manu River has many tributaries that originate in the high Andes. The Stones River is the longest tributary of the Madre de Dios River and about 99% of its drainage flows in the lowlands at least 400 meters above sea level; only a small fraction reaches the Andes. The southern tributaries of the Madre de Dios River: Tambopata, Inambari, Colorado, Blue, White and Alto Madre de Dios, covering a linear distance of approximately 100 to 300 kilometers from their mouths and their origin in the mountains. The Stones River is the largest tributary of the River Madre de Dios River, followed by Manu, Tambopata and Inambari in the north of peru  finding two reserve manu national park  and tambopata reserve and sandoval lake reserve.

Isolation in the basin of the Madre de Dios River – Manu National Park:

Manu Tour: The aquatic fauna of the Madre de Dios River and its “cousin”, the Beni River for trips, Amazonian Peru biogeography are considered, but possess a singular lack of common species. These rivers appear to have a high degree of endemic species, meaning that this term is fauna and / or flora that is found only in a particular region, such as a river basin or a geologic unit as the Andes from manu tour peruvian jungle trips.

Among the major tributaries of the Amazon wildlife that have headwaters in the Andes, the abundance of waterfalls is unique about the Madeira River. None of the other Andean tributaries of the Amazon wildlife have so many large waterfalls sharply delimit the middle and lower your course with her area header sections. The rapids of the Madeira start near Porto Velho, in the Brazilian state of Rondonia, and waters extending up to 350 miles to a location downstream of the confluence of the Madre de Dios River and the Beni in Bolivia. A geological interpretation of this is that the Madeira region, given its configuration, is a relatively young and that the river bed of the Beni Mamore converged with just two million years ago to define its present course on the west side of the Brazilian massif. Before this, the Beni river must have flowed northward, bound for what is now the Brazilian state of Acre, or south, towards the Pantanal region, between Brazil and Bolivia and Amazon Peru.

The distribution of arapaima or paiche (Anapaina gigas, Arapaimidae), pink dolphin, Risso’s dolphin, manatee and turtle charapa can give us an idea of ​​the isolation in which they find the river Beni and Madre de Dios River, respect of the lower regions of the Amazon. The paiche is one of the largest fish of the Amazon, reaching up to three meters long and 150 kilos of weight. The paiche not naturally found beyond the first cataract forming Madeira River rapids. Cataracts become thus a natural barrier to dispersal in most Amazonian rivers. This species was introduced in the Madre de Dios River, near the city of Puerto Maldonado, during the 1980s. Since paiche has spread downstream into the lower reaches of the rapids of Hope, in the lower Rio Beni. Currently, populations of this species, both in the Beni and Madre de Dios, allow commercial exploitation on a small scale. Historically, paiche had not been able to disperse upstream. However, downstream dispersal seems to have succeeded after its introduction with amazon expedition.

The Amazon wildlife basin has two species of dolphins. The pink dolphin or boto is widely distributed in the lowlands of the Amazon peru and in the systems of the Lower Beni and Mamore. Zoologists believe that the dolphin out Beni and Mamore isolation have genetic characteristics that distinguish it from its relatives of the central Amazon. The fact that the pink dolphin can not be found beyond the rapids of Hope is considered a problem, since you can spot on the rapids of the Madeira, which en-sections are shown comparatively more difficult at least four of its overcome by the dolphins that Esperanza. The buttons usually prefers riparian areas and floodplains, where it feeds on fish. Between the rapids of Hope, in the Beni river, and the river Madre de Dios Peru there are few areas of lowland rainforest so you could justify, in part, the absence of pink dolphins in this areain this reserve amazon peru

The gray or tucuxi dolphin is more related to their maritime relatives and avoid the rough waters of the falls. Therefore they can not see on the rapids of Madeira, and therefore is completely absent in Bolivia and southeastern Peru in manu national park.

The Amazonian manatee, also is widely distributed in the Amazon wildlife basin, however, has not been seen near the area falls. The presence of the pink dolphin in the area could lead us to presume the existence of manatees in the Mamore River basin downstream of Hope Falls, on the Beni River, since the distribution of these two species is similar in the rest Amazon peru . However, unlike the dolphin, manatee is not present in the system of Mamore. This as a result of the isolation of this region as a result of the long section Falls in Madeira or the inability to overcome manatee rapid upstream river Manu National Park.

The giant tortoise Amazon wildlife , better known in our country as charapa (P. expansa), has a similar distribution of the pink dolphin. It is possible that the giant tortoise Amazon  trail  has been introduced upstream of the rapids of the Madeira during construction of the Madeira-Mamore Railroad in the early twentieth century. This railway was constructed in order to overcome the rapids and cover the route between Porto Velho, downstream of the First Cataract, and Vila Bela, on the Mamore River, right on the opposite bank of the mouth of the Beni. At present, the charapa extends over the Mamore river basin but has not colonized the lower reaches of Beni upstream of Hope. A close relative of charapa, taricaya (P. unifilis), abundant in the lowlands of the basin of the Madre de Dios River.

Manu wildlife center: The other large aquatic animals in manu tour, the four species of caiman and two species of Amazonian otters otter-and southern-otter, found in the Madre de Dios River – Puerto Maldonado. Catfish are the largest fish in the Madre de Dios River the peru. This river has all the large species and widely distributed in the Amazon trail. Cataracts have shown they are not an obstacle to the spread of the large catfish and, as discussed below, many of these are migratory species that move annually upstream through the rapids of the Madeira with trips Jungle.

Amazon expedition with trips observed Fish are undoubtedly the main indicator to determine the originality of the aquatic fauna of the Madre de Dios River in trips jungle. Represent at least 95% of the fauna of aquatic vertebrates in the Madre de Dios River – Puerto Maldonado. The ichthyological studies in this river are still in their infancy, but there is enough evidence to say that the diversity of fish species exceed 600, a much larger amount of the total species in the basin of the Mississippi River, which exceeds by 20 times its drainage area. We know now that a large number of small fish are endemic of Madre de Dios River and perhaps, too, the Alto Beni for trips. The majority required to be disclosed, even those groups in the common market of ornamental fish, such as fish and pechito the genus Corydoras in jungle.

Conservation of the Madre de Dios River – Manu Jungle Trips

The headwaters region of Madre de Dios River, compared to other Andean and Amazonian regions, today presented promising areas for conservation efforts in the long run. Two major national parks, the National Park of Manu and Bahuaja Sonene-covering about 30 000 square kilometers, about one third of the basin of the Madre de Dios River in Peru. The Manu National Park covers 85% of the Manu Biosphere Reserve, an area specially designated by UNESCO because of its biodiversity. The southern and eastern flanks Biosphere Reserve are classified as Cultural Areas and Reserved Areas. Inside the Cultural Zone establishing populations are allowed, while in Reserved Zone is only possible to develop activities indirect use of resources such as ecotourism and research in this amazon wildlife and manu jungle trips.

The Manu National Park includes most of the Manu River basin and part of the headwaters of the Alto Madre de Dios. The Bahuaja-Sonene National Park, including the middle and upper parts of the watershed of the Tambopata River, but only part of their headers. Most of the lower Tambopata River region was not included in the Bahuaja-Sonene National Park due to the existence of population centers before the creation of the protected area. Under Peruvian law, logging, fishing and hunting are prohibited within national parks, state retaining the rights to exploit mineral resources like oil that apparently exist in the area amazon trail peru and manu jungle trips.

manu wildlife center You can not talk without mentioning conservation efforts in the individual subject in trips. These have been particularly successful because the human population in the headwaters of the Madre de Dios river is sparse and scattered. Most ethnic groups disappeared during the Spanish conquest and colonization attempts have been limited to date in jungle. Most of the rivers are sparsely populated, so there are fewer political conflicts when establishing protected areas in the rest of the Amazon trail basin. Gold mining has spread along the banks of some rivers, but their presence does not threaten the integrity of the parks and reserves in jungle. Most research efforts have been carried out in the parks and have focused on the flooded forests and plant and animal communities in jungle. These studies, especially those carried out at the Research Station of Cocha Cashu Manu National Park, led biologists to suggest that the southwestern Amazonia not only contained the greatest biological diversity of the Amazon Peru, but the world in general. From the filtered information specialists, television and print media built the reputation of the region of Madre de Dios as the “biological capital of the planet.” However, studies are still needed invertebrate communities to test this hypothesis. The Jungle abundance of amazon wildlife, especially mammals and birds is obvious to every traveler who visits the Manu National Park, but is not yet clear whether this is due to the absence of hunting, the high productivity of their forests or, most likely, both Amazon Expeditions Peru.

Many conservationists working in southwestern Amazonia Peruvian displayed in it a huge “conservation corridor the jungle peruvian” that includes not only the Manu National Park in Peru, but also the Madidi Manu National Park, tambopata reserve, sandoval lake reserve and Biosphere Reserve and Indigenous Territory Pilon Lajas in nearby Bolivia and Amazon Peru.

The region between the Manu National Park and tours Tambopata Bahauja Sonene National Park includes an area subject to intense gold mining in the Madre de Dios River – Puerto Maldonado and its tributaries south of Peru, the Inambari and Colorado rivers. In an effort to fill, at least in part-in the gaps of this conservation corridor was established in July 2001 Concession Los Amigos Conservation, a pioneering effort to protect a region in an area where the establishment of a Manu  National Park it is not possible verify, at least for now. As defined by Peruvian amazon law, a nongovernmental organization acts as a concessionaire, but is obliged to carry out research and development related to conservation in jungle peruvian. Granting Los Amigos Conservation Area is the first of its kind in Peru and is managed by the Association for the Conservation of the Amazon Basin  in this area in Amazon Peru – Jungle Trips.

Conservation needs of aquatic environments have not been addressed with an ecosystem perspective. As mentioned earlier, most research in aquatic environments have focused indirectly in the rivers, mainly in flooded forests, such as those made ​​in the Manu National Park or the giant otter. The meandering nature of the Madre de Dios River and its tributaries in the lowlands give rise to large floodplain forests, many of which may be covered by water for several days or several weeks annually throughout the growing season. The ecological role of floodplain forest on aquatic life of the headwaters of the Madre de Dios River has not been studied so far, but the presence of a variety of fish that feed on insects and spiders, and fruit and seeds, suggests the food chain is closely linked to them. Although the Madre de Dios River and its tributaries have a relatively high level of nutrients, phytoplankton production is low because water turbidity prevents light penetration for photosynthesis. Thus, the food chain is linked to organisms such as insects, falling water, or organic matter being washed by growing into rivers and mechanically become various forms of detritus. Some of the most abundant in the system of the Madre de Dios River fish are detritivorous species that remove organic matter from the bottom or submerged vegetation in this fores Manu National Park – Manu Nature – Manu Expedition.

Although it has always had the idea of ​​turning every inch of land located outside the parks and reserves in agricultural lands, there has been relatively little deforestation floodplain forest in the lowlands of Madre de Dios River. So far have not established measures to protect riparian forests outside protected areas. The search for and exploitation of alluvial gold is undoubtedly the main threat to riparian forests, which can be checked easily in the basins of the Colorado River and Inambari. Numerous aguajales have been devastated by mining operations along the rivers Madre de Dios, Inambari, Colorado and Blanco. Floodplains of Madre de Dios River and the lower courses of its tributaries have been selective logging, so it is now almost impossible to find a single mahogany tree outside the boundaries of the national parks or the upper reaches of the tributaries of rivers Los Amigos and Las Piedras. From an ecological perspective, illegal loggers have done more harm to animal life to trees, with the exception of mahogany, because monkeys, peccaries, tapirs and other game animals have been virtually eliminated to supply their camps. While extractors have been kept outside the boundaries of protected areas of the forest, the reality is that its operations have moved to tax, as the case of the Los Amigos River, and extended to the limits of the parks. There is constant political unrest aimed at achieving the opening of national parks and all tributaries to the forest industry, so violent confrontations between loggers and environmentalists has been inevitable, as in Puerto Maldonado in 2002, where protesters burned government and local conservation organizations buildings “Jungle Trips: Manu Tour – Clay Lick Wild, Clay Lick, Macaw Clay Lick”.

The role of forests in maintaining the hydrological cycle has been little considered in conservation plans of the Madre de Dios River. Of particular concern is the mountain forest, it minimizes erosion in an area of ​​high rainfall concentration. Here the weather is unpredictable and conditions can fluctuate significantly in just hours during the rainy season. Even under natural conditions, heavy rains in the foothills and adjacent lowlands may increase the riverbeds in more than three feet in a few hours. Deforested hills increase the temporal fluctuation five meters or more, bringing the absolute level of the water during the growing season. Fortunately, Manu National Park protects much of the mountainous region located north of the basin of the Madre de Dios River. But the biggest concern is the future of the upper reaches of the valleys of the rivers Madre de Dios and Inambari where agricultural settlement is becoming a factor in the increase in deforestation. The Peruvian government has no information about variations in discharges from the basin of the Madre de Dios River and, until that happens, it will be difficult to detect hydrological changes caused by deforestation.

Travel to Jungle with latest commercial fisheries of significant size upstream of the Madeira River basin is located near Puerto Maldonado in Manu Tour. Although the Madre de Dios River and its tributaries have hundreds of lakes or lakes formed from abandoned meanders in jungle, they are unproductive for fishing if you see them individually. The lakes tend to be shallow and turbid, while maintaining extensive areas covered by floating vegetation in jungle. In them, the fish productivity is often low in jungle peruvian. However, viewed as a whole, the lakes can provide habitat for many species of commercially exploited of the jungle. The most important species for commercial fishing are migratory Mother of God, and come to this area every year from Brazil and Bolivia. The water migration up the aim to reach the slopes of the Andes Peruvian where the spawning grounds are located. From a perspective ictiológica, the headwaters of the Madre de Dios River can be considered as important breeding in jungle. Commercial fishers in Puerto Maldonado exploit migratory species ranging upstream, but do not cause further damage to their populations as collection efforts on the same species are much higher downstream in Brazilian territory, from where they initiate migration “Field Trips – Amazon Filed Birds – Manu Birds – Manu Explorers“.

In the case of the Madre de Dios River, the conservation of spawning is more important in the long term regulation of commercial fishing in jungle trips. Conservation of Migratory Species is an international problem and requires the cooperation of the governments of Peru, Bolivia and Brazil, which share the Madeira River basin. Protect  spawning grounds of the headwaters of Madre de Dios River perhaps benefit more than Bolivia and Brazil to Peru, but the protection of migratory species is a matter of transnational interest.

The biological aspect of conservation efforts is often posed in terms of conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Politicians and social scientists often see conservation from a anthropocentric view, which emphasizes the direct benefits to the human population (usually those economic benefits).

In the past two decades, NGOs or NGOs calls have relied on abstract concepts such as sustainable development and community management to spread their conservation efforts of the Peruvian jungle. Although it is a recurring discourse, we must recognize that NGOs can do little to alleviate poverty or substantially improve the income levels of the local population. It is also recognized that environmental or government agencies of the countries of the Amazon wildlife basin are poorly equipped to assess and understand the impact of economic development on a large scale activities such as agricultural colonization, mining and illegal logging in the Amazon. It is in this area where NGOs can play a key role to fund conservation efforts and study of biodiversity required to propose action policies that are truly significant to the jungle. To some extent this has been the case in relation to parks and reserves Mother of God, as it was through the work of scientists that they could be conceptualized and promoted to be converted into reality. It is also important to note that Manu Tour has provided more scientific information about the ecology of tropical forests than any other place in the Amazon basin, and much of it thanks to funding of NGOs.

It would be a great mistake to assume that scientists on their own provide us with all necessary information for conservation. The experience of hundreds of indigenous peoples, hunters, loggers, fishermen v others provided a wealth of information that is often circumvented by scientists, NGOs and government agencies doomed to environmental issues.

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