The Biosphere Manu National Park Reserve: that make the core vita comes to the biosphere are designed to answer one of the key questions facing the world today; how to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity with finding a economic and social development and maintenance of cultural values associated Biosphere reserves are areas of terrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems internationally recognized by the Man and the Biosphere Programme of UNESCO.
Biosphere Reserve Manu National Park reserve is located in southeastern Peru, was established as one of the world’s largest samples of tropical forest, the Manu National Park which is one of the largest in the Amazon and unspoiled, with the greatest variety of ecosystems, plant species and animals and a great cultural diversity in its population. The original definition that was established Biosphere Reserve of Manu National Park in 1977, as well as zoning, are in the process of modification after the elaboration ¬, during the years 2001 and 2002, the Land Use Plan RBM. Initially, the Biosphere Reserve Manu National Park covering an area of 1,881,200 hectares, divided between the Province of Manu (Department of Madre de Dios) and the Province of Paucartambo (Department of Cusco]. Zoning of this area included three types of spaces: the Core Zone, Buffer Zone and Transition Zone or Cultural, each of which was governed by different criteria in terms of environmental protection
The core zone of the Manu National Park reserve was formed by Manu National Park (PNM) and was an area for the intangible protection of biological resources and cultural integrity of indigenous peoples. The extension of the Manu National Park has a .806 1’532 was covered in three natural zones of Manu National Park.
The Manu Biosphere Reserve is located southwest of Peru, partially located in the regions of Madre de Dios and Cusco, in the provinces of Manu and Paucartambo. With a territory of 1,909,800 has is divided into three zones: the National Park, with 1,532,806 ha; Reserved Zone, with 257,000 ha; and Cultural Transition Zone or, with 120,000 ha. It ranges from 300 m at the confluence of the Manu River with the Madre de Dios River, to 3,800 meters at the summit of the mountain Apu Kañajhuay. Some researchers believe in the virgin areas of this reserve is Païtiti or the lost city of the Incas.
Distribution of Manu Jungle Trips
The core or the Manu National Park area is dedicated to the protection and activities only anthropological and biological research, limited to the observation of life and ecological processes in their natural form are allowed; in the Park is the Cocha Cashu Biological Station, one of the most important research centers in tropical forests. The place is intangible and Tours to have a special permission.
In this same area there are human populations of native Amazonian belonging to different ethnic groups that inhabit from time immemorial, whose number is estimated at about 1000 indigenous; however, there is also a Quechua population of approximately 200 people in the area Callanga.
The buffer zone or Manu Reserved Zone is located in the lower part of the Manu River in this area tourist activities (organized by authorized agencies) and research with minimal manipulation are allowed.
You may observe a rich natural landscape by the large number of flora and wildlife visible from the rivers and the “lakes” (meandering river that close and are isolated from the mainstream, forming ponds that hold a wealth of fauna) . The visits are controlled. It extends from the gorge of the river Panagua; to Boca Manu.
The transition zone or cultural consists of the basin of the Madre de Dios River and the Andean territories bordering the southern part of the reserve, the dividing line between the National Park and the river Mapacho. This area is dominated by settler populations who develop agricultural, livestock and forestry activities and who have basic health, education and development, although incipiently. Conducting environmental activities is permitted.
Around the Manu Biosphere Reserve there are other areas such as the Land Bank of the State in favor of Ethnic Groups Kugapakori and Nahua, the Megantoni Sanctuary and Reserved Zone Amarakaeri; these territories and basin Mapacho river, and the expansion of the existing cultural area (later called Area Multiple Use Andean and Amazon) are considered within studies and proposals for integrating them into the Biosphere Reserve of Manu .
Climate Jungle Trips:
The rainy season or low season is from January to March, but year round can be unexpected rains; temperatures in the lowlands range from 35 ° C during the day and 25 ° C overnight.
Flora and fauna in Jungle Trips:
Its ecological wealth is important. The area contains more than 20,000 species of plants. In the Manu is possible to find the full range of ecological zones that exist in the Amazon and this makes it one of the most appreciated. In a single hectare have come to find up to 250 varieties of trees.
The Manu is biodiverse, contains over 20,000 types of plants, 1,000 species of birds, 1,200 of butterflies and 200 of mammals including the jaguar, the giant otter and 14 marmoset monkeys as the world’s smallest 100 g and the maquisapa 9 kg.
- Mammals: 159 species
- Reptiles: 99 species
- Amphibians: 140 species
- Birds: 800 species
- Fish: 210 species
Insects are several that has not been designated a scientific classification:
- Butterflies: 1307 species
- Ants: 300 species
- Anisoptera: 136 species
- Bees: 650 species
The Manu National Park is the largest protected park biodiversity in the world.
NATURAL PROTECTED AREAS STATE PARK MANU:
The SINANPE protects 16 173 428.75 ha (12.58%) from the mainland of the country. The Bahuaja- Sonene ranks sixth in SINANPE extension (fourth between areas with final categorization), representing 6.75% of the total area of Protected Natural Areas by the State, and protecting the territory nacional1 0.85%.
SINANPE Park contributes to the protection of diversity territory covered by both the department of Madre de Dios and Puno department (Map of Protected Natural Areas, G-2). In the region of Madre de Dios, SINANPE conserves natural resources with the following ANP: Alto Purus National Park, Amarakaeri Communal Reserve, Manu National Park, Bahuaja- Sonene National Park and the Tambopata National Reserve, with protected territory 44.78%, with an area of approximately 3 787 570.87 ha, of which 8.30% are covered by Bahuaja- Sonene.
Bahuaja- and Sonene are the words used by Ese’eja to name the Tambopata and Heath rivers respectively, and that the Native Federation of the Madre de Dios River and Tributaries (FENAMAD) proposed to designate the Park which protects both basins.
The creation of Bahuaja- Sonene (PNBS), is the result of the efforts of various individuals and institutions to conserve ecosystems of Tambopata, from the initiative of creating the Tambopata Reserved Zone (ZRT), on the confluence of the rivers Tambopata and La Torre in 1977 and the creation of the Pampas del Heath National Sanctuary (NWHS) among the Palma Real and Heath rivers in 1983 to the creation of the Zone Reservada2 Tambopata (TCRZ) – from the road Cusco-Puerto Maldonado south and to the upper parts of the basins of the Inambari and Tambopata rivers in the department of Puno in 1990, and the subsequent process for the final categorization of the area.
The process of categorization TCRZ included Pre-Feasibility Study for the Conservation and Sustainable Development in the Tambopata Reserved Zone (INRENA, 1993) which, among its recommendations included the establishment of a National-Park and ended with the establishment Bahuaja Sonene National Park (1996) and the Tambopata National Reserve (in 2000).
The Bahuaja Sonene National Park was established on July 17, 1996, by Supreme Decree No. 012-96-AG, with the full incorporation of the area covered by the Pampas del Heath National Sanctuary (NWHS) and part of the territory of the Zone Tambopata reserved; thus forming an area of 537 053.25 ha.
With the creation of the Park is also clear that, at the end of the accumulation process of “loose” Lot 783 (of which 1.5 million hectares stretching from the border with Bolivia, to the east, across the TCRZ to the limit of the Reserve Manu Biosphere Reserve, to the west), a supreme decree would be issued to consolidate its total area. Four years later, after the withdrawal of the oil companies, the occupied surface Lot 78 and part of the remaining extension Tambopata Reserved Zone Park are incorporated by DS No. 048-2000-AG of September 5, 2000, expanding its surface to 1,091,416 ha. extending over the departments of Madre de Dios and Puno, in the provinces of Tambopata, Carabaya and Sandia respectively.
The story of creation and management of protected areas and their dissemination in the department of Madre de Dios has been different from the Department of Puno. In the province of Tambopata in Madre de Dios, the local population (native chestnut, miners, farmers), the tourism sector and trade organizations (mainly FADEMAD) have been linked directly and / or indirectly with the processes of categorization and management of the protected area; well as the Tambopata National Reserve, processes that go back three decades and, therefore are in significant measure in the collective memory of its people.
The reserve Amarakaeri Community was established by DS 031-2002-AG of 09 May 2002 It is located in the district of Madre de Dios, Manu Province, Department of Madre de Dios and the District of Pilcopata, Paucartambo Province, Department of Cusco; occupying an area of 402,335.62 ha.
The region where the Communal Reserve is located is ancestral territory of indigenous communities Harakmbut, Yine and Matsiguenga. Indigenous people are in this area of clean water source and breeding areas for wildlife. Also manage to keep under state protection areas considered as sacred by their ancestors.
The communal reserve Amarakaeri is located among other important protected areas such as the Manu National Park, the Tambopata National Reserve and Bahuaja Sonene National Park, part of a unique biological corridor in the world, involving protected areas neighboring Brazil and Bolivia.