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Manu Jungle Trips
Manu Jungle Trips
Manu Jungle Trips
Volunteer Manu national park
Volunteer Manu national park
Volunteer work at Manu National Park
Manu Jungle Trips
Manu Nature 6 days / 5 nights Manu Biosphere Reserve
Manu Nature 6days/5nights Manu Biosphere Reserve
Giant otter distribution and Manu Nature Surveyed (positive and negative) grid squares for the giant otter in Giant otter distribution and Manu Nature within its current range of distribution. Manu Jungle Trips in Peru
Manu National Park 8 days / 7 nights Manu Biosphere Reserve
Manu National Park 8days/7nights
Manu Biosphere Reserve: The Manu National Park is situated in Southeastern Peru where it covers 1.9 Million hectares. Around 6500 Quechua and 2000 Amazonian peoples are living inside the Reserve. Manu Jungle Trips in Peru
Manu Jungle Trips
Manu Jungle Trips
Manu Jungle Trips
Manu Jungle Trips
Clay Lick Wild – Manu Blanquillo 7 days / 6 nights Manu National Park
Clay Lick Wild – Manu Blanquillo 7days/6nights Manu National Park
In Manu, typical areas of macaw salt licks are the (Scheela butyracea) palm trees, known as Shebonal. Pew nutrients, a high concentration of aluminum, and little organic material characterize these areas - Manu National Park. Manu Jungle Trips in Peru
Manu Tour 7 days / 6 nights Manu Biosphere Reserve
Manu Tour 7days/6nights
Manu Biosphere Reserve: FEEL TRIPS MANU TOUR OF A NATURAL EXPERIENCE: The most important request for the development of the ecotourism is the sustainable use the conservations of nature We, Manu Jungle Trips, are a company with conservation in mind, and we are aware of the changes that have occurred on our planet. Manu Jungle Trips in Peru
Manu Jungle Trips
Clay Lick – Macaw Blanquillo - Manu Park Peru
Clay Lick – Macaw Blanquillo - Manu National Park Peru
CLAY LICK – MACAW BLANQUILLO - MANU NATIONAL PARK: In native language, Macaw means, “that who cries along the river”. They are highly intelligent animals and can live up 50 or 60 years old.. There are sixteen species in total. Six species are extinct, while eight species are at present in danger of extinction in amazon wildlife in peru. Manu Jungle Trips in Peru
Manu Jungle Trips


Highlights of a typical tour: A typical Manu trip starts from Cusco at 3,300 m.a.s.l., crosses the last Andean mountain range, drops down the eastern slope of the Andes into the lowland Amazon forests, and returns by air from the frontier town of Puerto Maldonado to Lima or Cusco. Cusco is a major hub for exploring Inca culture, most famously at the ruins of Machu Picchu, and for adventure sports (so there is plenty to interest a non‑birding spouse!). On the first day of a trip, birders usually visit the wetlands of Huacarpay, 30-minute drive from Cusco, the ancient Inca capital of Peru, where Andean waterfowl and marshbirds abound. Here the beautiful Bearded Mountaineer Oreonympha nobilis,  a restricted‑range species endemic to southern Peru, can be seen feeding, as indicated on the map of the Manu Biosphere Reserve, showing location of lodges mentioned in the article 51 neotropical birding 5 on tree tobacco. (For a taste of this splendid hummingbird, see Joe Tobias’s photospot in Neotropical Birding 2: 83–85.) The endemic Rusty‑fronted Canastero Asthenes ottoni is also found here. The route then proceeds to the humid eastern Andean slopes where the grasslands at Ajcanacu Pass at 3,500 m hold high‑altitude tinamous, the recently described Diademed Tapaculo Scytalopus schulenbergi and Scribble‑tailed Canastero Asthenes maculicauda at its northernmost limit. The stunted elfin forest  along the roadside hosts several tanagers, flowerpiercers and the restricted‑range Puna Thistletail Schizoeaca helleri, found nowhere else in the reserve.

manu park

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Peru Amazon Tours 3 days / 2 nights

  • Length: 3 days/2 nights Peru Amazon Tours;
  • Type of service: Private or Group in Peru Amazon Tours;
  • Location: Southern Peru,  Manu National Park, Manu Peruvian Jungle,
  • Activities: parrot’s clay-lick, flora & fauna, Peru Amazon Tours , Rainforest lodge, jungle trips , Hot Spring , Machuwasi lake  , Night Activity ;
  • Altitude: 400 – 3,600 m.a.s.l.
  • Best time to visit: May – December
  • Departure: Every day
  • Minimum of participants: 2
  • Maximum of participants: 10
  • Price per person: USD


manu park culture zone peruvian jungle peru amazon tours - manu jungle trips


Quick Itinerary of the Peru Amazon Tours :

Travel Cloud Forest  Pilcopata Lodge  to Manu Peruvian  .

  • Manu Transfer by bus from hotel in Cusco
  • Travel by car from Cusco to Pilcopata – 185 km
  • Visit Ninamarka (3,700 m.a.s.l.), Pucartambo (2,906 m.a.s.l.), and Acjanacu (3,490 m.a.s.l.),
  • Cloud Forest varies from 500 m to 4000 m above sea level
  • Bilingual guide (Spanish and English)
  • Lunch and dinner
  • Pilcopata Town (700 m.s.n.m)
  • 1 night with a comfortable shower and bathroom

Travel Atalaya Port to Rainforest  Walk   Machuwasi– Manu Peruvian 

  • Breafast, lunch, and dinner
  • Bilingual guide (English and Spanish)
  • Travel from Pilcopata to Port Atalaya – 45 Minutes
  • Boat trip from Port Atalaya to our Rainforest Lodge
  • Rubber boots included
  • Drinking water provided
  • Walk in the Manu National Park Reserve
  • Explore Machuwasi Lake
  • Hot Springs
  • Activity at night in our boat to see the caimans and birds
  • 1 night at our lodge

Rainforest Lodge – Parrot Clay Lick Back to Atalaya Port and Cusco City

  • Manu bilingual guide (English and Spanish)
  • 5:00 am: wake up and visit the parrot clay lick
  • Breakfast and lunch
  • Departure from our lodge between 8:00 and 8:30 am
  • Boat back from our lodge to Port Atalaya
  • Private car for the group awaits us at Port Atalaya to return to the city of Cusco
  • Arrival in Cusco between 7:00 and 7:30 pm
  • End of service


Peru Amazon Tour 3 days:

Tour Day 1:
Peru Amazon Tour – Cusco Ninamarca Paucartambo – Cloud Forest – Pilcopata Lodge 

We leave Cusco early in the morning to start our advente! First, we are taken by private transportation to a place called Ninamarca to observe pre-Incan “chullpas” (tombs) from the Lupaca culture. Then, we continue to Paucartambo, a colonial town with narrow streets and a beautiful


church, where people still keep their old customs. Later, we ascend to Acjanaco Pass (3,550 masl), considered to be an entrance to the Manu National Park, and then we get to the viewpoint Tres Cruces de Oro (3,700 masl) to observe a beautiful view of the Amazon Basin if the weather permits, From there, we start descending to the edge of the Manu jungle, passing first an elfin forest and then a cloud forest where we can view a cock of the rock, hummingbirds, strikingly-colored quetzals, trogons, spotted flycatchers, and woolly monkeys. In terms of flora, we can view a variety of orchids, mosses, ferns, etc. Finally, we will arrive at our lodge in Pilcopata (700 masl). We can refresh ourselves there with a shower and after that, we will be served dinner before we go to bed.

Tour Day 2:
Peru Amazon Tour Atalaya Port – Rainforest  Walk  and  Hot Springs – Machuwasi Lake – Manu Park 

After breakfast we will continue our journey in private transportation (an hour and a half) to Port Atalaya (500 masl). From there we will embark on our motorboat to continue our journey through the Madre de Dios River along the rocky banks to observe wilderlife such as birds, turtles, and lizards sunbathing on the beaches. Then we will arrive at our lodge.  We will explore the forest to observe a great diversity of species, such as tarantulas, ants, butterflies, some species of monkeys, and huge trees, exotic plants, palm trees, etc. After that, we will return to our ho Lodge  for lunch and Then, we have a short break to enjoy a refreshing bath in the Hot Springs or to

hot spring

just relax in the lodge. In the afternoon, we will go to visit Machuwasi Lake to explore in wood rafts. This is a perfect way to observe the great diversity of local animal species, such as the prehistoric bird called hoatzin, some , reptiles,  caimans and insects, groups of turtles and perhaps some rum punches (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris). After this unforgettable walk we will return to our lodge, and eat dinner .

After dinner we do night activity where we will have chance to see differents species   after that we will return to spend the night in our comfortable lodge  with toilets and showers available.

Tour Day 3:
Peru Amazon Tour – Rainforest Lodge to Parrot Clay Lick – Port Atalaya – Return to Cusco City

After breakfast, wewill board a motor boat and ride for 10 minutes to a clay-lick of parrots, budgerigars and macaws, which is an unforgettable experience! After this activity, we will return to the lodge to have breakfast. Then we will re-board our boat to start our return trip. Our

peru amazon tours

first stop is in Port Atalaya where our private vehicle will await us to take us back to Cusco, where we will arrive between 7 and 7:30 pm.

You need to be vaccinated against Yellow Fever as well as to bring some anti-malaria tablets with you!!


Included in the Peru Amazon Tours 3 days / 2 nights:

  • A professional naturalist tour guide;
  • Motorboat transportation;
  • Private vehicle land transportation;
  • A professional cook,
  • Meals: 2 Breakfasts, 3 Lunches, 2 Dinners, and drinking water (Please note: vegetarian option availableupon request for no extra cost!)
  • Accommodation: 2 Nights in Lodges;
  • First aid kit, including a poison extractor, mosquito bite treatment and antidote for snake bites;
  • Life jacket;
  • Radio communications;
  • Rubber boots.
  • Hot Springs

Not included in the Peru Amazon Tour 3 days / 2 nights:

  • Flights and airport departure taxes;
  • Travel insurance;
  • Vaccinations;
  • Breakfast on the first day and dinner on the last day;
  • Drinks;
  • Tips to local staff.

What to take with you to the Peru Amazon Tour 3 days / 2 nights:

  • Mosquito repellent (DEET 35 recommended as a MINIMUM!!),
  • Original passport,
  • Small backpack,
  • Long-sleeved cotton shirts (preferably green coloured),
  • Long cotton trousers,
  • Long cotton socks (to be put into your trousers),
  • Comfortable walking shoes,
  • Sandals or light shoes,
  • Rain gear (e.g. rain poncho),
  • Swimsuit;
  • Binoculars (also available for rent),
  • Camera and charger,
  • Plastic bags to be used for clothes and camera,
  • A hat as a protection against the sun or rain,
  • Toiletries,
  • Small towel,
  • Toilet paper,
  • Antibacterial gel,
  • Sun cream,
  • Sunglasses,
  • Flashlight (with spare bulb and batteries),
  • Water bottle (1 litre as a minimum),
  • Pocket money (soles) to buy some beverages and souvenirs .


Lodge Manu National Park



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Confirmed departures of the Manu National Park – Tour jungle trips:

Manu Pilcopata Lodge in Jungle Trips

Peru Amazon Tours 3 days:

Peru Amazon Tour 3 days: The first thing visitors can see is the archeological site Chullpas de Ninamarca (pre-Incan tombs) still located in the Andean highlands. Later on, you will pass through a cloud forest, which is a warmer zone that appears as a thick veil of clouds located in the entrance of the Manu National Park. Then you will continue deeper into the jungle until you reach the lowlands of the Manu Cultural Zone. The park covers an area of 20,000 km2 of Peruvian Amazonia and is considered to be one of the best places of South America to see tropical wildlife!!! The Peru Amazon Tour  shows you a huge variety of animals (almost 50%) that cannot be seen in any other place in the world!!!
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Manu Rainforest Lodge in Jungle Trips

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The Manu Biosphere Reserve is one of the most pristine areas of wildlife the Amazon Peru, which is found in the Manu River in the park. No activities such as hunting or fishing are performed here. This Reserve is very strictly controlled and visitors are only allowed to visit with their tickets and the guides with their professional card s especially with its operator agency of the Manu National Reserve. During your entire time in the park, you will be accompanied by your guide, from your departure from the city of Cusco until your return to the city of Cusco. Tours to Manu National Park must be organized in advance in order to avoid any problems with your departure for the Manu tour.


Manu National Park is located in the southern part of Peru in the departments of Madre de Dios and Cusco Province. It occupies territories of the districts of Fitzcarralt of the province of Manu and district of Challabamba and Qosñipata of the province of Paucartambo. It comprises all the the Manu River basin and the left bank of the Madre de Dios River; the park lies 65% in the department of Madre de Dios and 35% in the department of Cusco.


The Core or Natural Zone: This zone covers an area of 1,532,806 hectares and is the indigenous territory where the land is still used in traditional ways, without any restrictions for native groups, where tourists and any other foreign person may not enter without authorization from the headquarter of Manu National Park.
The Reserved Zone: This zone consists of an area of 257,000 hectares dedicated to tourism and to researchers with a rational treatment of resources.
The Transitional or Cultural Zone of Manu National Park: This zone covers an area of 91,394 hectares where the colonists and some indigenous communities of Machiguengas are found, forming a buffer zone in the core of the Manu National Park, where there are no restrictions on economic activities, as can be seen in our maps. The three areas that make up the Manu National Reserve contains 13 different ecological zones ranging in altitude from 200 m to 4,000 m, meaning that it has an incredible variety of flora and fauna.
Excursions to Manu National Park are expensive. However, it is sometimes possible to get discounts on official prices. If an agency has a fixed departure for a day or two and if it still has spaces, it may be willing to offer a lower price. Our departure dates are fixed for this 2017 (If you have a desired date for a tour to Manu, we need a deposit of 50 %, minimum of 2 people, maximum of 10 people. You can make your reservation with our company Manu Jungle Trips.)

*The international companies operate in the Manu Reserve with their own land and river transportation and have their own land and lodges that leave no income for the communities and indigenous peoples who for years and centuries have kept this reserve in their natural habitat. Today only some agencies try to work along with them giving income and generating work for the local population inside and outside the Manu National Park Reserve.


Site description:  amazon tours peru  This huge 1.5 million-ha park has successive tiers of vegetation rising from 150 amazon tour peru  to 4,200 m above sea-level.  amazon tThe tropical forest amazon tours peru  in the lower tiers is home to an unrivalled variety of animal and plant species amazon tours peru . Some 850 species of birds have been identified and rare species such as the giant otter and the giant armadillo also find refuge there. Jaguars are often sighted in the park amazon tours peru  . 2017 Conservation Outlook Finalised on 09 Nov 2017 Manu National Park peru amazon  tour  benefits from its privileged location and size, as well as almost half a century of uninterrupted commitment by dedicated governmental staff, non-governmental organizations and Peruvian amazon tours peru   and international researchers   peru amazon tour . Many observers plausibly argue that the hostile and in some cases deadly indigenous responses to intrusions have likewise discouraged illegal access in remote areas  amazon tours peru   and thus contributed to maintaining an exceptional state of conservation peru amazon tour . The acute and direct threats to the property continue to be modest by the standards of most protected areas. Likewise, the management effort and effectiveness in the national park amazon tours peru  is by no means alarming amazon tours peru   . At the same time, the land and resource use dynamics have dramatically changed since the creation of the national park peru amazon tour  and the more recent World Heritage inscription amazon tours peru  . A quickly advancing development frontier has changed large tracts of a previously remote landscape  peru amazon tour . Major road infrastructure has been facilitating access and legal and illegal natural resource extraction  amazon tours peru  . This development represents significant threats to the property in the medium and long terms, theeffects of which are starting to become visible and are likely to be aggravated by anticipated climate change amazon tours peru  . There is an ever more urgent need to balance the inevitable trade-offs between economic development and social, cultural and environmental objectives peru amazon tour . The numerous protected areas which are still functionally connected across vast territories amazon tours peru  and across boundaries with neighboring countries need to be better understood and maintained peru amazon tour . This may well constitute one of the only available instruments to increase resilience and to reduce vulnerability to anticipated climate change in the long term  amazon tours peru  . It is also the only chance for the cultural survival of some of the last completely self-sufficient forest-dwelling peoples in the world amazon tours peru   . It is for these imminent threats and the absence of an adequate response and preparedness that the outlook is overshadowed by significant concerns, only seemingly in contradiction to the still exceptionally high integrity  amazon tours peru . While the current state of World Heritage Values is very good, future threats from amazon tours peru major changes in the broader region peru amazon tour , expected climate change and the increasing human footprint in and around the Property combine to give a high level of concern. The social, cultural and environmental consequences of ongoing development schemes, including oil and gas, road infrastructure and logging need to be better understood and considered in regional  amazon tours peru   and sector planning. Connectivity with other protected areas in the region should be considered in such planning. Overall THREATS High Threat There are amazon tours peru   serious concerns about multiple developments outside the property, including road infrastructure development and resource exploration and extraction. Combined with the overarching concern about anticipated climate amazon tours peru  change, the impacts of increasing direct and indirect human pressure on the property and its surroundings are the foundation for an overall assessment of “high threat” – despite a still very good state of conservation amazon tours peru  .

PROTECTION and MANAGEMENT : Despite challenges in terms of human and financial resources, park  amazon tours peru    management has been effective in maintaining a very good state of conservation throughout the vast majority of the property   peru amazon tour . While this is partially a function of the scale, remoteness and terrain of the property it is also a function of the strong dedication of leadership and staff under at times adverse conditions amazon tours peru  . Reliable long-term funding is needed to adequately address the threats within and around the property amazon tours peru   . World Heritage values Enormous altitudinal gradient and mosaic of highly diverse ecosystems and habitats amazon tours peru  .

This roadless 1.7 million hectare property is located at the meeting point of the eastern slope of the Tropical Andes and the Amazon Basin amazon tours peru   . The property spans an enormous range of elevations, micro-climates and other ecological peru amazon tour  conditions, thereby enabling a wealth of highly diverse ecosystems, habitats and niches. The most widespread vegetation types found are tropical lowland  amazon tours peru  rainforest down to some 350 m.a.s.l., different types of tropical montane rainforest and cloud forest amazon tours peru  (SoOUV). The highest elevations exceeding 4,000 m.a.s.l. peru amazon tour  boast treeless Puna, one of the native grassland types of the High Andes amazon tours peru   . Exceptional biological diversity and rare, endemic and endangered species amazon tours peru  .

The biological diversity of Manu National Park amazon tours peru   is among the highest recorded anywhere on Earth. Some 1024 bird species found in the property represent approximately 10% of the known global bird species diversity  amazon tours peru   in a single protected area (1005 along one transect according to Patterson et al., 2006) peru amazon tour   . The at least 222 mammal species include the charismatic Jaguar (Panthera  amazon tours peru  onca), Puma (Puma concolor) and several other felids, such as the elusive and endangered Andean amazon tours peru   Cat (Leopardus jacobita). Many of the 14 primate species  amazon tours peru    (Patterson et al., 2016) are a common sight, and even the globally endangered Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) can often be seen in the countless oxbow lakes of major rivers. Manu amazon tours peru    is home to at least 155 species amazon tours peru  of amphibians and 132  peru amazon tour species of reptiles, 2.2% and 1.5% respectively of the known diversity for these groups (Catenazzi et al., 2013)  peru amazon tour . Numbers of amazon tours peru  invertebrates range in the hundreds of thousands with 1,300 recorded butterfly species alone  amazon tours peru  (WDPA Data Sheet, 2011). The region may boast  amazon tours peru   some 15,000 species of plants amazon tours peru    ; Foster (1985) recorded almost 1,500 vascular  peru amazon tour plants just around the  amazon tours peru  Cocha Cashu research station. Scientific expeditions in and around the property routinely lead to the discovery of new species amazon tours peru   across many taxonomic groups, including vertebrate and tree species amazon tours peru   (see for example Vriesendorp et al., 2004). In addition to the extraordinary amazon tours peru  diversity of life forms, the property is also renowned for its high level of endemism and an unusually high abundance and biomass of fauna across many taxonomic groups amazon tours peru    .

Manu National Park  amazon tours peru  is difficult and costly to access to this day due to its unusual geographical isolation m peru amazon tour , a key factor also in its historic economic amazon tours peru  isolation. It is one of very few protected areas in the world which completely encompasses a large and in essence undisturbed watershed of an important amazon tours peru  river amazon tours peru  . The coincidence of the park boundaries with a major ecological and geographic unit, the remoteness and Manu’s contiguity with other vast areas amazon tours peru   of global conservation importance – all the way to and beyond the Brazilian amazon tours peru  border to the east for example – strongly contribute to the maintenance of ongoing ecological and evolutionary processes at a large scale. The full range of large top predators occurring in natural population densities is one indicator for the property’s exceptional high degree of naturalness and integrity peru amazon tour .

Other important biodiversity values : Ongoing interaction between indigenous peoples and biodiversity
The national park and some of its surroundings are home to several  amazon tours peru   indigenous peoples in so-called initial contact and/or voluntary isolation. While some today engage in a mostly sedentary lifestyle combining agriculture, husbandry and hunting and gathering, the property enables the cultural survival of some of the last mobile indigenous peoples  peru amazon tour  in the Americas. If one defines human beings as integral elements of biodiversity  peru amazon tour , Manu amazon tours peru   stands out as being among the last places where human beings have been using nature and biodiversity  amazon tours peru   without fundamentally modifying it. Assessment information amazon tours peru  . At a time when the property itself continues to be in a remarkably good state of conservation  peru amazon tour , the land and resource use dynamics of the broader landscape have been changing considerably over the last years and decades  amazon tours peru  . On the one hand numerous protected areas have been created over the years and there is an increasing consensus on the need for more systematic conservation peru amazon tour  planning taking into account landscape connectivity  amazon tours peru . Likewise, there is an increasing number of indigenous areas which many hope will serve as a mechanism to avoid excessive resource exploitation amazon tours peru    . On the other hand, economic interests competing with nature conservation and sustainable use are increasingly putting pressure on the property peru amazon tour . While the tangible effects of climate change and the slowly growing indigenous communities inside the property are no acute reasons for concern, it will be of critical importance to  protect the park from the many faces of the encroaching development frontier amazon tours peru   .

amazon tours peru  Poaching along the northwest border and subsistence hunting is common in and around the native communities. The current off-take by the Matsigenka amazon tours peru   appears to be sustainable. Subsistence hunting was found to not result in prey depletion (Shepard et al. 2010., Ohl-Schacherer et al. 2007, Yu et al  peru amazon tour . While livestock grazing and associated use of fire is an ancient land use in the Andean grasslands amazon tours peru    , there is concern that levels may exceed sustainable use thereby damaging soils, productivity and conservation values.

Deforestation for gold mining is encroaching on the buffer zones around the amazon tours peru   park to the point that it can easily be spotted on readily available satellite images. Taking into account the known impacts of unregulated gold mining elsewhere in the Peruvian Madre de Dios region amazon tours peru   , it is clear that an expansion of active mining would be devastating  amazon tours peru   .

Agricultural activities within the property are localized and restricted to subsistence levels. Localized swidden agriculture is slowly expanding around the indigenous communities amazon tours peru  Tayacome and Yomybato. Small-scale commercial and subsistence agriculture is widespread and indispensable for local communities in the buffer zone  peru amazon tour . There is some concern about encroachment from the buffer zone  amazon tours peru  to the south of the property, especially as improved road access would undoubtedly create incentives for commercial activities. The most sensitive agricultural activities is the cultivation of illicit crops, which has been confirmed for several years by the The overall impact is minor, as visitation is extremely localized and the number of visitors is relatively small (between 2,000 and 3.000 visitors per year) amazon tours peru  . Many tourism packages under the label “Manu” refer to areas outside of the national park which are easier to access from Cusco, the principal access  peru amazon tour .

The exceptional integrity of Manu National Park amazon tours peru   is a function of its location
and size but also supported by a much larger surrounding landscape of highest conservation importance. Even though vast areas are today recognized as different categories of protected areas amazon tours peru  and indigenous communal areas (including the contiguous Alto Purus National Park  peru amazon tour which is even larger than Manu) amazon tours peru  , illegal logging and mining are known to occur amazon tours peru   . Major roads connecting Brazil to the Pacific through the Andes are expected to change the regional economy and increase development pressure and resource extraction (Dourojeanni et al., 2009)amazon tours peru   . Proposals to build a new access road along the southern boundary come and go. If eventually connected to Puerto Maldonado amazon tours peru  , this is likely to change the dynamics of the buffer zone amazon tours peru    which today can only be accessed via a precarious dirt road  amazon tours peru  across the Andes (see Gallice et al. 2017 for a discussion of predictable impacts). Gas and oil exploration and extraction in the vicinity of the park peru amazon tour  have resulted in well-documented environmental impacts and are widely assumed to also affect indigenous peoples in so-called voluntary isolation amazon tours peru   (The Guardian, 2017).

The rapid growth of both legal and illegal resource extraction and infrastructure development outside the property is moving ever closer to the boundaries of the property. The recent and ongoing investment in road amazon tours peru  infrastructure in the Peruvian Amazon can be expected to further result is already visible economic, social and environmental changes in the broader region peru amazon tour . Anticipated climate change is likely to add to the vulnerability of the ecosystem amazon tours peru  .

Oil and gas exploration is occurring south of the property. The controversial Camisea Gas Field, one of Peru’s amazon tours peru   largest energy projects, is located in a remote area in the immediate vicinity of the property. Interest in a possible amazon tours peru  expansion despite national park and World Heritage status has repeatedly been expressed and would obviously come with major risks for the property. It is assumed that indigenous groups in voluntary isolation have moved into peru amazon tour
Manu National Park  amazon tours peru   (Yu et al. 2013) in response to disturbance by gas amazon tours peru     While climate change is already believed to affect the Park, its future effects are predicted to be even more severe. Some observers anticipate important die-off of lowland forest, expecting such forests to give way to drier amazon tours peru    ecosystems. Impacts on freshwater systems and other consequences are expected. Increasing human populations around the property, illegal logging and reported coca plantations, improved road access to the southern buffer zone  amazon tours peru   , and hydrocarbon exploration in the buffer zone are driving the agricultural frontier towards the property. Though not an immediate threat, these trends are opening the door for future threats. Terborgh (1999) provided a sobering account of decades of personal work experience in this part of the Peruvian Amazon  amazon tours peru   . A Management Committee for the national park has been resuscitated after years of neglect, and includes major stakeholders and rights-holders. Relationships with local people are generally weak, however, because of limited staff and budgets. The situation is improving, but due to the lack of resources and staff the progress is slow (Manu SPreport, 2011; Parkwatch Profile, 2009; IUCN Consultation, 2013). The location of the Head Office in Cusco means that senior staff is not permanently present in the property or its buffer zone amazon tours peru   . See Huertas et al. (2003) and PRO-MANU/INRENA (2003) for useful overviews of the indigenous past, present and future of the park and broader region amazon tours peru   . The national park was given full legal protection through Supreme Decree in 1973 and enlarged in 2002. The management of the national park is assigned to the National Protected Areas Service (SERNANP)  amazon tours peru    . Some Concern Law enforcement benefits from the remoteness and difficult access, mostly restricted to the Manu River peru amazon tour  itself and comparatively accessible areas near and above the treeline in the Andes. There are localized challenges, which include some farming and husbandry in the higher elevations and the alleged cultivation of illicit crops. Overall, law enforcement is functional  amazon tours peru    Given that the future integrity of Manu National Park amazon tours peru    to a large degree will depend on sectors other than conservation, there is an urgent need to better integrate conservation  peru amazon tour  concerns into policies for infrastructure development, agriculture and resource extraction amazon tours peru   . Speaking strictly in conservation terms, there are encouraging efforts to establish conservation corridors to link the property with other protected areas, many of which are likewise of exceptional conservation significance. There is also major potential to take advantage of shared interests between conservation actors and indigenous peru amazon tour peoples  amazon tours peru .

The governmental management is led by the federal protected area agency SERNANP amazon tours peru  represented by its unit based in Cusco amazon tours peru   . Following up on consecutive earlier management plans, the current plan covers the period from 2013 to 2018 (Plan Maestro, SERNANP, 2013a) amazon tours peru   . It is noteworthy that this Master Plan was underpinned by an extensive participatory process resulting in a separately published assessment (SERNANP, 2013b)  peru amazon tour . The plan continues to contain and refine descriptive, strategic and operational elements. Zonation distinguishing six different zones amazon tours peru   and corresponding management regimes continues to be a major instrument and an entire chapter is dedicated to the buffer zone amazon tours peru   in recognition of the crucial importance of the surroundings of the property  peru amazon tour . While caveats remain in terms of ensuring reliable funding and capacity for implementation and the limited mandate in terms of addressing threats stemming from outside the property, both the process and the product are good examples of moving beyond a purely expert-driven approach to management planning  amazon tours peru  .

While strong credit is due for the dedication of past and current staff for protecting the park from many threats under often adverse conditions and a wide range of political and economic settings over more than 40 years, it is no secret that law enforcement suffers from constraints in terms of resources and capacity. External projects understandably focus on buffer zone amazon tours peru  management, i.e. on areas which are not part of the property but are likely to influence or even shape its future. Thereby, core tasks in the property routinely face constraints  amazon tours peru  . The inscription decision suggested a “need for a rural development project in the buffer zone  peru amazon tour “, to which the State Party has responded by way of several amazon tours peru  projects over the years, including an active project at the time of writing amazon tours peru  . The simultaneous biosphere reserve approach can likewise be interpreted as being compatible with the above need articulated by the Committee  amazon tours peru  . Later on, the Committee requested the formalization of the enlargement of the national park  peru amazon tour at the national level by way of a minor boundary modification, which was successfully submitted by the State Party and adopted by the Committee amazon tours peru   . More recently, the Committee endorsed the recommendations offered by the 2010 reactive monitoring mission  peru amazon tour  . The State Party has since been addressing some of these recommendations, leaving room for further consolidation of follow-up. The boundaries of the Park were set by Supreme Decree in 1973, and enlarged in 2002. The World Heritage property was enlarged in 2009 to coincide with the expanded boundaries of the national park  amazon tours peru   . Today the
property thus encompasses the entire Manu peru amazon tour   watershed, thereby coinciding with an ecological landscape unit. The 2010 IUCN/World Heritage Centre reactive monitoring mission recommended that the Park’s boundaries be expanded to include the adjacent Megantoni Nature  amazon tours peru   Reserve. The World peru amazon tour .

The property has multiple funding sources amazon tours peru   : a relatively reliable governmental budget, which has been stable to increasing over the last year, more volatile fees from a limited number of tourists and project funding  peru amazon tour . The latter includes the option to access PROFONANPE, the national protected areas fund, and in principle any other external funding source, i.e. foundations, NGOs, private sector, multilateral and bilateral cooperation etc. Given the scale of the park peru amazon tour    , funding remains modest amazon tours peru   (Manu SPreport, 2011). Given that the main challenges are not necessarily conventional protected areas issues but rather broader societal decision-making at the level of and beyond the Peruvian Amazon, funding is not necessarily the major bottleneck in the future of the property. At the same time, it is clear that adequate and reliable funding is indispensable and requires consolidation  amazon tours peru   .
There is a national training strategy and plan for protected area staff training. This is being implemented, but long-term funding needs to be secured. The high staff turnover is a major problem as trained staff leave (IUCN Consultation, 2013   ) amazon tours peru    . Consumptive natural resource use inside the national park is very limited and localized. Studies on indigenous hunting claim no signs of prey depletion, i.e. ongoing sustainability (e.g. da Silva et al. 2005), which is probably attributable to the ban on firearms. The inhabitants of the park amazon tours peru  are dependent on wild biodiversity, i.e. use is a necessity, which management is aware and respectful of  peru amazon tour . The main question is whether population growth and changing lifestyles may change the current situation, which is not of major acute concern. If defined as a form of sustainable use, the intensity of tourism is likewise no reason for acute concern.

An environmental education network for the Manu Biosphere Reserve  amazon tours peru   is made up of NGOs, municipalities, regional governments, environmental; authorities, and education institutions. Working with the network, the Park peru amazon tour  developed an Environmental Education program which orients the work of the network members amazon tours peru   . The network works with schools in the region, and also does training for government officials and Park personnel. (Parkswatch Profile, 2009) However, funding remains a major issue (IUCN Consultation amazon tours peru    ,2013).

Most interpretation for visitors is carried out by guides contracted by tour amazon tours peru   operators. Visitor information centers are located at Salvacion and El  peru amazon tour Limonal. The Salvacion centre is mainly used by local people for environmental education.(Parkwatch Profile, 2009; IUCN Consultation, 2013) amazon tours peru     The current Master Plan contains a structured monitoring programme combining remote sensing, ground trouthing and counts of selected species.
In addition, researchers and NGOs have been contributing to the monitoring of various parameters and species  amazon tours peru   .  The renowned amazon peru tour  Coca Cashu Biological Station has had a presence in the  amazon tours peru   national park for more than four decades and is widely respected as one of the key locations enabling the contemporary understanding of the ecology of   amazon tours peru   tropical forests. The scientific productivity of the station is unmatched in the  amazon tours peru   tropical forests in and possibly beyond South America Overall assessment of protection and management Some Concern Despite challenges in terms of human and financial resources, amazon tours peru    park management has been effective in maintaining a very good state of conservation throughout the vast majority of the property amazon tours peru    . While this is partially a function of the scale, remoteness and terrain of the property it is also a function of the strong dedication of leadership and staff under at times adverse conditions   peru amazon tour . Reliable long-term funding is needed to adequately address the threats within and around the property. Assessment of the effectiveness of protection and management in addressing threats outside the site Due to its mandate focusing on protected areas and limited human and financial resources, routine park management primarily addresses threats inside the property when most threats originate outside of it. Park  amazon tours peru  management and SERNANP amazon tours peru   more broadly is perfectly aware of this fundamental dilemma. The simultaneous biosphere reserve approach, including the recent expansion of the Manu biosphere reserve are amazon tours peru    a management response to this very dilemma. While important efforts are peru amazon tour  made in the buffer zone, they continue to rely on external funding and support at the level of projects. Eventually, a major consolidation and institutionalization to coordinate and negotiate with relevant sectors, stakeholders and rights-holders beyond the level of individual projects. Despite the still very good state of conservation of the property itself preparedness and responses to the advancing development frontier remain inadequate. Therefore  amazon tours peru    , the effectiveness of addressing external threat is ranked as a serious
The history of Manu National Park   peru amazon tour  is a remarkable success story starting in the late 1960s, at a time when tropical rainforest  amazon tours peru   conservation was not on the international agenda, the term biodiversity did not even exist and the  Amazonian forests  amazon tours peru   seemed inexhaustible. A small number of Peruvian peru amazon tour  conservationists had the vision, capacity and political clout to create the national park  amazon tours peru   as the globally largest tropical rainforest protected area at the time. Despite ups and downs in management and funding and mounting concerns about ongoing and anticipated changes of the land and resource use dynamics in the surrounding landscape, Manu National Park amazon tours peru    continues to be in a good state of conservation more than four decades after its creation. State and trend of values Assessing the current state and trend of values World Heritage values Enormous altitudinal gradient and mosaic of highly diverse  amazon tours peru   ecosystems and habitats

Given the extreme isolation of the site, and the small number of indigenous  amazon tours peru     residents within it, direct human impacts are still very low. However, population is growing in and near the site and the overall pressure is also rising as significant changes in the broader landscape occur, including largescale gas extraction, gold mining, logging and infrastructure projects. The eventual removal of cattle and corresponding use of fire in some of the highland grassland will allow for the recovery of the ecotone between the puna vegetation and montane forests  peru amazon tour  (IUCN Consultation, 2013) amazon tours peru   . Exceptional biological diversity and rare, endemic and endangered  species  amazon tours peru  .
The expected future impacts of an increasingly close development frontier, in particular to the south of the property will eventually increase the pressure on many taxonomic groups, such as predators due to human-wildlife conflicts  and poaching of birds, mammals and fish  amazon tours peru   . At this stage, impacts are still very   limited inside the property  amazon tours peru   .To this day, most of the the property continues to be characterized by an exceptionally high degree of naturalness and integrity due to the configuration, scale, remoteness and effective conservation. Summary of the Values  amazon tours peru . While the current state of World Heritage Values is very good, future threats from major changes in the broader region, expected climate change and the increasing human footprint in and around the Property combine to give a high level of concern. The social, cultural and environmental consequences of ongoing development schemes, including oil and gas, road infrastructure and logging need to be better understood and considered in regional and sector planning. Connectivity with other protected areas in the region should be considered in such planning. Assessment of the current state and trend of other important biodiversity values  amazon tours peru  Additional information Understanding Benefits History and tradition, Sacred natural sites or landscapes, Sacred or symbolic plants or animals, Cultural identity and sense of belonging  amazon tours peru  .

While Manu National Park  peru amazon tour  is not formally recognized under cultural World Heritage criteria, the long and ongoing history of indigenous occupation is  noteworthy. Important Incan and Pre-Incan ruins and petroglyphs are amazon tours peru    distributed within and around what today constitutes the property. According to the local legend of Paititi, the “Lost City of the Incas” is located within the property. Various indigenous peoples are living in Manu National Park amazon tours peru    . Some of them are sedentary and in regular contact with the “modern world”, while others maintain a semi-nomadic lifestyle as hunter-gatherers in so-called “voluntary isolation” or “initial contact”, respectively (2010 IUCN-World Heritage Centre mission report, PRO-MANU, 2003) amazon tours peru     .
Cocha Cashu Biological Station amazon tours peru    located within the property has been one of the foremost references for scientific research in tropical ecology for decades   peru amazon tour . The scientific work conducted in the property has been significantly enhancing the understanding of (neo-)tropical forest ecosystems amazon tours peru   . Collection of medicinal resources for local use, Outdoor recreation  and tourism amazon tours peru  . Wild biodiversity is the only or primary source of medicinal products for many indigenous  amazon tours peru    peoples and local communities in the park and region  peru amazon tour . It is clear that both the genetic resources and the indigenous knowledge about medicinal properties of wild biodiversity amazon tours peru    are valuable and most sensitive resources. Tourism is currently at a low level, but may have considerable growth potential   peru amazon tour . If realized tourism is likely to – and should – remain localized to minimize environmental, cultural  amazon tours peru   and social impacts. Legal subsistence hunting of wild game, Collection of wild plants   peru amazon tour and mushrooms, Fishing areas and conservation of fish stocks The indigenous peoples living in or periodically / episodically using Manu amazon tours peru
National Park are accepted as legitimate and directly resource-dependent subsistence users despite a less than clear legal framework amazon tours peru    . Livestock grazing occurs near the Callanga community in the transition  amazon tours peru  between the Andean puna grassland and montane forests.  Manu National Park  amazon tours peru   , the largest tropical forest protected area in the world at the time of first designation is renowned as an inspiring and iconic place in the scientific   peru amazon tour , conservation and parts of the travel communities amazon tours peru   . Carbon sequestration, Soil stabilisation, Flood prevention, Water provision (importance for water quantity and quality)  amazon tours peru  . The large and mostly forested property stores important amounts of carbon; the intact native vegetation amazon tours peru   prevents erosion in an area where high precipitation coincides with steep terrain. Furthermore, the property’s natural  peru amazon tour forest cover contributes to the regulation of the entire amazon tours peru    Manu River  watershed. Summary of benefits The conservation  amazon tours peru   of what may be the most biodiverse terrestrial  amazon tours peru   ecosystems on earth and distinct indigenous cultures under enormous pressure is a globally significant and irreplaceable benefit of the property. Due to the scale and intactness of the property further benefits include important ecosystem amazon tours peru services. The conservation of   peru amazon tour  Manu National Park while respecting the rights of its indigenous inhabitants is one of the last opportunities to try and provide amazon tours peru   indigenous peoples in voluntary isolation and initial contact with the option to continue their traditional lifestyles if they so wish amazon tours peru   .Manu ,Lodge, Amazon, Lodges, Amazonia ,Lodge, Manu, Nature , Amazon, Lodge ,Peru ,Manu ,Wild ,Peru ,Amazon, Trip, Peru , Wild Peru , Wild ,Explorer ,Wild Peru , Birds ,Waching ,amazon, Birds, Amazon ,Bird , Jungle ,Trips ,Manu, Jungle ,Trips ,Jungle ,Tours ,Manu ,Jungle, Tours , Travel, Peru ,,amazon ,Tour ,Rainforest Peru ,Rainforest Peru , Explorer ,Inn, Wasai  , Tambopata, Manu  , Eco ,Amazonia , Amazonia ,Peru , Sandoval ,lake, Lodge , Peru, nature , Wild Explorer, Wild ,Expeditions , Manu ,Tour ,wild  Manu , Manu National Park , Manu, Park ,Trip Peru ,Peru ,Trips ,Amazonia, Peru  ,Wild , Manu, Park, Lodge , Exploring Peru , Cloud ,Forest , Wild ,Forest ,wildlife  ,Rainforest  ,Manu Lodges ,Amazonia, Lodge ,Manu ,Nature ,Manu Peru ,Manu ,Wildlife ,Center ,Paradise, Lodge, Eco, manu, Lodge ,Amazon, Trail ,Amazon, Trails, Manu ,Peru ,Manu, Park ,Volunteer ,Amazon Lodge, Tambo Blanquillo ,Manu, Rainforest ,Manu ,Wildlife ,Center , Manu ,Expeditions , Manu , Explorer, Bonanza , Tours, Peru, Casa Matsigenka , Pankotsi , Lodge , Manu ,Pusharo , Lodge , Inkanatura ,  Lodge , Cocha, Cashu ,Biological ,Station ,Cocha ,Salvador ,Cocha ,Otorongo , Manu ,Birding ,Lodge , Manu, Rainforest, Lodge ,Manu, Rainforest, expeditions ,Manu, Adventure ,amazon, Peru, Lodge , Amazonia ,Wildlife ,Center ,Peru ,Cocha Salvador, Manu ,Cocha ,Otorongo, Manu ,Manu ,Center, Peru , Manu, Nature, Wildlife ,Manu, National, Park ,Manu ,nature, Rainforest ,Manu, Nature, Biosphere ,Manu, reserve ,Center ,Manu ,Paradise ,Wild ,Amazon ,Lodge ,Peru ,Amazonia ,Rainforest ,Peru ,Manu, Peru, Jungle ,Amazon ,Lodge, Explorer ,Eco ,Manu ,Center , Wildlife ,Center, Rainforest, Lodge, Manu, Paradise, Lodge, Peru , Manu, ,Expedition, Nature ,Inkanatura ,Travel Peru, Rainforest, Peru ,Amazon, Trail Manu ,Manu, Lodge, Center ,Amazonia ,Manu, Trips ,Manu, Wild, Center, Amazon ,wild peru , peru, wild ,amazon, trips ,peru ,amazon,trek,trekking,trek,south,amazon,travel,amazon,tour,amazon,trevels,amazon,tour,amazon,Amazonia,tours,bonanza,tours,trekking.


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Manu National Park amazon tours peru  was founded in 1973 on a profound contradic-tion tour amazon tpur peru : The “untouchable” core area is, in fact, the homeland of a large indigenous population, including the Matsigenka amazon tours peru  (Machiguenga)tour amazon tour peru  .Some view the Westernization of native communities living in pro-tected areas as a threat to biodiversity amazon tours conservation and suggest that such populations should be enticed to resettle outside parks tour amazon. Here, we present an overview of the indigenous populations of Manu tour amazon, outline the history of the park and its anthropological policies, and discuss evolving park-Matsigenka amazon tours conflicts as well as areas of commoninterest tour amazon. Analysis reveals that resettlement has no political, legal, or practical viability. Thus, given the options available tour amazon, we propose that long-term biodiversity tour amazon conservation can best be achieved through a enure for defense” trade: indigenous communities receive explicit benefits (e.g., infrastructure and service investments, employment opportunities, or economic alternatives such as ecotourism) inexchange for helping to defend the park against incursion and managing vulnerable resources such as game animals. KEYWORD Sbiodiversity conservation, ecotourism tour amazon, human-inhabited protected areas, indigenous rights, Manu National Park, park tour amazon management, Peru, subsistence hunting tour amazon .

In films, popular books, websites, and tourist pamphlets, Manu NationalPark tour amazon is often portrayed as a remote “paradise without human interference”or a “Living Eden” where nature flourishes in all its primordial splendor(MacQuarrie, 1992). Though remarkably rich in wildlife, Manu tour amazon is anythingbut free from human interference. The human history of Manu, in the tour amazon  Madrede Dios basin and the adjacent Urubamba-Ucayali region tour amazon , spans at leastthree millennia (Huertas & Garcia, 2003). Archeological studies of ceramics,textile technology, stone axes, rock art, and other ancient remains suggest acontinuous though dynamic occupation by four predominant cultural tour amazon      linguisticgroups—Arawakan, Panoan, Harakmbut, and Tacana—from pre-Colombiantimes through the present. Lowland Amazonian groups of the regionengaged in long-distance trade with Andean populations since at least Incatimes (Lathrap, 1973; Myers, 1981) with copper tools, precious metals, jewelry,and other goods of Andean manufacture being exchanged for lowlandproducts such as tobacco, resins, smoked meat, animal skins, and birdfeathers (Camino, 1977). Inca roads extended into the Cosñipata region(Madre de Dios headwaters) tour amazon, where the Inca and later, the Spanish main-tained coca plantations, gold mines, and trading posts. Pre-Colombian traderoutes in Madre de Dios tour amazon  may have reached as far east as the Tambopata River (Lyon, 1981). Nonetheless, the Inca were unsuccessful in conqueringthe Amazonian lowlands tour amazon , and direct Inca rule never extended far beyondthe Andean foothills.Spanish explorers and Catholic missionaries engaged in trade andattempted to subjugate Amazonian tour amazon  peoples starting in the late 16th century (Camino, 1977). By the middle of the 17th century, indigenous populationsthroughout Amazonia tour amazon had suffered demographic and political collapse dueto the rapid spread of smallpox and other European diseases (Myers, 1988;Denevan, 1992). The capture of women and child slaves was already anelement of Amazonian inter-group warfare prior tour amazon to the Conquest. In thepost-Conquest reconfiguration, surviving riverine groups raided weaker groupsfrom the hinterlands, capturing children to be sold at distant market townsas agricultural laborers, domestic servants, or Christian converts tour amazon. Nonetheless,the Spanish encountered great difficulties in conquering, occupying, andsubjugating remote montaña (upland rainforest) regions, with their impene-trable forests, fast-flowing rivers of difficult navigation, and resistant localpopulations. In 1742, the messianic leader Juan Santos Atahuallpa gainedthe support of Arawakan populations and led an uprising that expelled theSpanish from the Ucayali-Urubamba basin for over a century (Santos-Granero,2002). Spanish explorers had even less success in the Madre de Dios basin, where repeated expeditions starting in the late 17th century were destroyedby Indian attacks, treachery among rival Spanish leaders, and calamities inthe fierce rapids (MacQuarrie, 1992). Manu and Madre de Dios basinsremained isolated and devoid of a definitive tour amazon  presence through thelate 19th century.For its indigenous inhabitants, the enchantments of the remote, isolatedforests of the Manu region were finally and brutally dispelled by the RubberBoom or “fever of rubber” from 1895 to 1917. Charles Goodyear’s discovery in 1839 of vulcanization and Dunlop’s subsequent invention of the pneumatictire fueled a drastic increase in demand for Amazonian rubber. Peru’slowland rain forests  tour amazon  were suddenly teeming with entrepreneurs (“rubberbarons”) and their local guides in search of rubber trees and cheap labor. Existing patterns of slave trading and inter-ethnic violence rose to a feverishpitch. Dominant tribes of the Ucayali region such as the Piro, Shipibo, and Ashaninka—already engaged in trade—served as guides in locating rubber-rich forests tour amazon and enslaving local indigenous labor. In 1896, the infamous“King of Rubber,” Carlos Fermín Fitzcarrald (Reyna, 1941), employed 200rubber tappers and a thousand native guides of the Ucayali River basin toportage a small steamship across the narrow land passage, now known asthe Isthmus of Fitzcarrald, separating the upper Mishagua River tour amazon (a tributary of the Urubamba) from the upper Manu River (tributary of the Madre deDios River) tour amazon, thus opening up a vast region that had hitherto been inac-cessible to rubber exploitation and European colonization more generally. Accompanied by a flotilla of native guides in canoes, Fitzcarrald’s force was attacked by fiercely resistant native inhabitants known as the “Maschos.”Fitzcarrald lost 50 men, and in retaliation mounted a vicious counter-attack,killing some 300 Mashcos, burning their houses and gardens, and destroy-ing their canoes. tour amazon  A witness of the fierce battle described the carnage: “Youcould no longer drink the water from the river because it was so full of thecorpses of Mashcos and rubber tappers, because the fight was to the death”(Reyna, 1941, cited in MacQuarrie, 1992, p. 59).Punitive and slave-capturing raids known as “ correrías ” (Camino, 1977)brought dislocation and devastation to indigenous populations who soughtto flee the rubber camps or resist intruders. In addition to the violence they perpetrated, rubber tappers also brought new epidemics of exotic illnessessuch as malaria, measles, and influenza. Native populations who werepressed into labor in the rubber camps were subjected to poor health and working conditions. Von Hassel (1904, p. 244) estimates that 60% of the native workers in the Manu tour amazon River rubber camps died of disease or malnutrition.Despite international protests about the atrocities, and denunciationsthat were considered before British courts and the U.S. Congress (Hardenburg,1912; U.S. House of Representatives, 1913), it was not until after the collapseof international rubber prices—due to the rise of Malaysian plantation rubber— that slave trading and genocide practiced against native Amazonians tour amazon finally started to diminish. After 1917, Manu was abandoned even by the Catholicpriests who had established a mission at  tour amazon San Luis del Manu. However, thesame routes and techniques used during the rubber boom continued toprovide indigenous slaves for the hacienda plantation economy, loggingenterprises, and domestic service in Peruvian cities at least until the 1950s(Zarzar & Roman, 1983; Alvarez-Lobo, 1996). Many native populations only managed to survive these grim times by isolating themselves from allcontact with peoples outside their group, cutting themselves off from centuries-old networks of inter-ethnic trade. Some groups even abandoned agricultureand adopted a nomadic, hunting-and-gathering lifestyle to avoid being detectedand captured. Several indigenous groups of the Manu and adjacent regionsremain isolated and hostile to outsiders today. Far from the popular notionof isolated indigenous peoples as being “innocent savages,” unspoiled by contact with civilization, the isolated indigenous groups of Manu and Madrede Dios regions tour amazon  today are anything but “uncontacted”; instead, they arethemselves refugees from the violence of a global economy.In the 1960s, the rich resources of the Manu basin once again attractedthe attention of traders in timber and animal pelts, as well as human souls.Sawmills were established on the lower Manu to exploit the rich reserves of fine hardwoods such as cedro ( Cedrela odorata L.) and mahogany ( Swieteniamacrophylla King). Hunters also plied the lakes and forests of the Manubasin seeking jaguars, giant river otters, caiman, and other animals with valu-able pelts or hides. Meanwhile, missionaries of the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) employed acculturated indigenous guides to contact isolated Matsigenka populations who had retreated to the headwater regions in theaftermath of the Rubber Boom.Celestino Malinowski, a taxidermist and naturalist of Polish descent who had explored the Madre de Dios region tour amazon  since childhood, becamealarmed by the indiscriminate logging and hunting. He began sendingletters to Peruvian authorities about the situation, and through a series of fortunate coincidences (see MacQuarrie, 1992, pp. 63–66), his advice wasfinally heeded, and tour amazon  Manu was declared a Reserve Zone in 1968, and finally a National Park in 1973. Loggers, hunters, and missionaries were expelledfrom the newly created park (see MacQuarrie, 1992; Terborgh, 1999). Firearmsand extractive economic activities were also prohibited, though indigenouspeoples were permitted to remain as long as they engaged in “traditional”subsistence activities tour amazon. A group of Piro-speaking people of mixed descent, who had lived on the Manu and worked in various extractive economies(rubber, logging, pelt hunting) since the Rubber Boom, moved downstreamand established new communities outside the park near the mouth of theManu River to avoid the new restrictions tour amazon.
THE INDIGENOUS INHABITANTS OF MANU, THEN AND NOW  :The linguistic, cultural, and territorial integrity of indigenous peoplesthroughout the Madre de Dios region tour amazon was disrupted during the RubberBoom, as some groups migrated from adjacent regions tour amazon, others were displacedor exterminated, and survivors were forced to intermarry or assimilate withother groups (Lyon, 1975). Furthermore, the nomenclature applied to indig-enous groups in historical sources has always been problematic. In somecases, a single term is applied to speakers of multiple languages or evenmembers of different language families (Lyon, 1975). Thus, our understandingof the human history of Manu Park is fragmentary and somewhat speculative . Mashco and Mashco-Piro The historical sources mention “Mashcos” on the upper Manu River tour amazon, whomFitzcarrald’s men came into conflict with and ultimately massacred. Theterm “Mashco” appears to have been originally a Conibo (Panoan) word,used as long ago as the late 17th century to refer to an indigenous tour amazon nation(possibly Piro) found on an eastern tributary of the Ucayali River (Alvarez-Lobo,1996, cited in Gow, 2006). Lyon (1975) locates the Mashco in the late 19thcentury in the Manu-Camisea-Mishagua watershed (i.e., the Isthmus of Fitzcarrald), describing them as a band of Arawakan-speaking Piro, known variably as Mashco, Piro-Mashco, and Mashco-Piro (cited in Gow). The term“Mashco” was originally used in Madre de Dios to refer to any isolated or warlike groups (Lyon, 1975). However, Dominican priests working in the Madre de Dios region tour amazon came to use Mashco as an ethnic denomination forthe Harakmbut-speaking Arasaeri and Amarakaeri (Califano, 1982), peoplesoriginally of the Colorado River (a Madre de Dios tributary) who are wholly unrelated to the Piro. To add to the confusion, a short word list of dubi-ous origin for the “Mashco” language collected by Farabee (1922) in theManu-Mishagua watershed in 1907 contains a few words of apparently Harakmbut and a few of Piro origin (Lyon, 1975), contributing to the unlikely theory that Mashco-Piro was a hybrid language mixing Mashco (Harakmbutlanguage family) and Piro (Arawakan language family; see Gow). Becauseof such confusion, the Harakmbut (or Haté) languages (e.g., Amarakaeri, Arasaeri, Huachipaeri, Toyeri) were once erroneously assigned to the Arawakan language family (Lyon, 1975)tour amazon . Who were the Mashco massacred by Fitzcarrald, who essentially disap-peared from the ethnographic record for Manu tour amazon? Gow (2006), drawing onthese historical sources and an interpretation of the enigmatic data concern-ing the isolated indigenous peoples of Manu and adjacent areas, comes tothe conclusion that the Mashco were, in fact, the very same Mashco-Piro orPiro-Mashco, that is to say Arawakan speakers of a Piro dialect tour amazon. They weremassacred by Fitzcarrald’s men, and a few survivors fled to the forest, aban-doning agriculture and taking up a nomadic lifestyle tour amazon . Their descendents arealmost certainly the enigmatic Mashco-Piro (see Kaplan & Hill, 1984), hunter-gatherer nomads who shun all contact with outsiders. One Mashco-Pirogroup been known from the Pinquen River on the south bank of the Manu River tour amazon for decades. Three Mashco-Piro women emerged from isolation at thePark guard station of Pakitza tour amazon along the Manu River tour amazon in the 1970s, apparently fleeing from internal conflict within the group. These women, dubbed by local people as the “Three Marias,” later went to live in Matsigenka tour amazon and Pirocommunities on the Madre de Dios River along the park borders tour amazon . The Piro of the community of Diamante have confirmed that they speak a language ordialect that is close to Piro, but marked by numerous linguistic differences tour amazon . Moreover, the Piro, in their tireless efforts to contact the remaining, isolatedMashco-Piro, have communicated with and even temporarily captured Mashco-Piro individuals (see MacQuarrie, 1992; Gow). However the maingroup of the Mashco-Piro insist on maintaining their isolation tour amazon. Since the mid-1990s, a second group assumed to be Mashco-Piro has appeared on thenorth bank of the Manu tour amazon, apparently fleeing from incursions by petrochemi-cal companies and loggers on Rio de las Piedras (see Box 1).The Mashco-Piro nomads today are almost certainly descendents of these original occupants of the upper Manu tour amazon, decimated by Fitzcarrald’s attacksand forced to abandon agriculture and enter isolation. Yet were they theonly indigenous inhabitants of the upper Manu tour amazon at the time of the RubberBoom? Historical sources are ambiguous (see Gow, 2006), but an examina-tion of oral history suggests that at least one other group was present. TheMatsigenka people living today at Tayakome and Yomybato mention a time tour amazon,

Box 1 tour amazon : Isolated Indigenous Groups Today Anthropological studies carried out during the park’s creation indicated thepresence of numerous isolated indigenous groups tour amazon within the park’s bound-aries (d’Ans, 1972). The warlike Yora were contacted in the late 1980s,decimated by disease, and left park territories seeking better humanitarianassistance tour amazon. The remote Matsigenka tour amazon of the upper Sotileja and Cumerjali haveincreasingly emerged from isolation since 1990, also suffering from numer-ous respiratory epidemics. In 2004, a Polish film crew led by Jacek Palkiewicz entered park territories along the Piñi-Piñi River tour amazon, seeking thelegendary lost Inca city of Paititi, and in the process infected isolated Matsigenka tour amazon populations of the Piñi-Piñi and Mameria with severe respira-tory epidemics; a British film crew sconting for the ‘Mark & Olly’ series waslikewise blamed for an outbreak of colds among isolated Matsigenka tour amazon of theCumerjali (Shepard, 2008). Throughout the park’s history, no effectiveaction has been taken to prepare for the immediate health emergencies orlong-term consequences of such contact situations with isolated groups.There are still considerable numbers of isolated indigenous peoples inManu Park. The Mashco-Piro nomads of the Rio Pinquen migrate through-out the south bank of the lower Manu tour amazon in close proximity to tour operationsand Westernized native communities along the Upper Madre de Dios River.Supported discreetly by SIL missionaries, indigenous Protestant convertsamong the Piro of the Ucayali and Madre de Dios regions tour amazon have aggressively sought to contact the Mashco-Piro for at least 15 yr. The Dominican missionof Shintuya has also made sporadic efforts to contact this group. Since 1996,clear evidence of hitherto unknown, isolated indigenous groups began toappear on the northern bank of the Manu river tour amazon . The arrival of these peopleseems to have coincided with large-scale seismic exploration initiated by Mobil Oil in the Rio de las Piedras, northeast of Manu Park tour amazon. Though loggersand missionaries had made exploratory trips to the Piedras basin since atleast 1990, their incursions increased greatly after Mobil relinquished theconcession in 1998. On one occasion, in the late 1990s, isolated natives shotarrows at tourist boats. In late 1999, carrying out an ethnobotanical survey close to Tayakome tour amazon, Shepard and Yu and their Matsigenka tour amazon guides weregiven warning calls by a party of isolated natives passing nearby (Shepard & Yu, 1999, cited in Huertas, 2002). More recently, with the explosion of ille-gal logging in the Madre de Dios province fueled by Brazil’s banning of mahogany exports, isolated indigenous groups have attacked tour amazon, and beenattacked by loggers working in the Piedras and adjacent areas, including theterritory of isolated indigenous groups near the border with Brazil (Huertas).Since 2002, isolated groups have encroached with increasing frequency and boldness on the territory of settled Matsigenka communities on theupper Manu tour amazon . They have taken metal implements and food from Matsigenkahouses, burned one Matsigenka house located far up a north-bank tributary stream (perhaps as a warning not to return to that region),and fired arrows as warning shots at groups of Matsigenka who inadvert-ently approached them. Clearly, this group or groups are fleeing from tur-moil in the Piedras area and seeking new territories within Manu Park tour amazon .The Matsigenka claim that encounters have occurred with two distinc-tive cultural groups, presenting different kinds of arrows and differentforms of bodily adornment tour amazon . One group is assumed to be Mashco-Piro of the Piedras, surely constituting a distinctive population from the Mashco-Piro of the Pinquen (Gow, 2006). The Matsigenka tour amazon   doubt the second groupis Panoan (i.e., relatives of the Yora) due to the forms of body ornamenta-tion and arrow-making styles. Some suggest that this second group may represent a final remnant of the Harakmbut-speaking Toyeri (“Aogyeri”),thought to have been wiped out in the 1950s (see Mashco and Mashco-Piro). One Matsigenka  tour amazon man says he encountered a group of four men atthe edge of his garden in the dry season of 2004, and exchanged, at a con-siderable distance, a few words of greeting in the Harakmbut tongue astaught to him by his deceased Kogapakori-speaking elderly relative.During the dry season in June 2005, a large group (perhaps as many as100) ofisolated people made a dramatic appearance at the biologicalresearch station of Cocha Cashu tour amazon , leading to the evacuation of the station.The group migrated over a period of a few days towards Tayakome, wherethey repelled all attempts at approach or contact by Matsigenka community members with a hail of arrows. There, the group forded the Manu River tour amazon atthe mouth of Yomybato (Quebrada Fierro stream) and moved further intothe interior of the park towards the Sotileja River. The Matsigenka considerthis group to be Mashco-Piro  tour amazon. Never before had such a large and visiblemigration taken place, and the Matsigenka  tour amazon interpreted it as an indicationthat the Mashco-Piro group hoped to migrate on a more permanent basisto uninhabited territories in Manu Park, fleeing conflict with loggers in thePiedras basin. However, in August, a party of shotgun-wielding Yora whohad entered the park from the Mishagua headwaters (undetected by thepark of course, since no guard post exists there) encountered this groupnear the mouth of the Sotileja River. In the ensuing conflict, the Yora firedgunshots and wounded or perhaps killed at least one Mashco.This worrisome scenario summons a profound sensation of déja-vu,considering the Yora tragedy of the mid-1980s, likewise provoked by pet-rochemical, logging, and missionary penetration. Despite this experience,and despite a tremendous growth in the park’s funding and personnel inthe 1990s, little has changed in terms of the park’s capacity to respond tohealth emergencies and conflict situations associated with the contact of isolated indigenous populations. The park badly needs to establish con-trol posts along the Isthmus of Fitzcarrald, negotiate with the Matsigenkaand tour amazon Yora populations to establish norms of conduct to avoid such con-flicts, and set aside “no-go” zones for isolated populations to transit, espe-cially during the dry season when migrations are most common probably before the beginning of the 20th century, when the Matsigenkamaintained friendly relations with a group they refer to as Kogapakori, ageneric Matsigenka term for all hostile groups tour amazon, but whom the modern Matsigenka tour amazon equate with the Harakmbut-speaking Toyeri. The Kogapakori were considered the dominant group, and so Matsigenka families sometimesallowed a son to be raised by the them to learn the language. The large num-ber of Harakmbut loan words (especially animal, plant, and craft names) in thedialect of Matisgenka spoken in Manu Park tour amazon bear testimony to this history of cultural contact. The last such Kogapakori-raised, Kogapakori-speaking Matsi-genka, essentially the patriarch of the Tayakome-dwelling Matsigenka, died asa very old man in Tayakome in the 1980s. Fragments of Kogapakori vocabu-lary passed on to younger relatives are clearly Harakmbut in origin. Accordingto stories passed on by this man, the whites massacred the Kogapakori on the Manu River tour amazon at the tributary Kapiroshampiato (up-river from modernTayakome), and the survivors fled to the middle and upper Cumerjali River,the next major down-river tributary, where they were joined by other mem-bers of the same group fleeing warfare and epidemic diseases elsewhere in theMadre de Dios basin (P. Lyon, personal communication, January 27, 2007, alsomentions Huachipaeri oral histories of a small Toyeri group that crossed fromthe east bank of the Madre de Dios  into the Manu tour amazon watershed in the mid-20thcentury). However, the Kogapakori population at Cumerjali was massacredonce again by whites several years later. According to another piece of oralhistory, the whites were aided in this second massacre by vengeful Matsigenka guides tour amazon  whose family members had been attacked and killed by the Kogapa-kori on the upper Sotileja. These “Kogapakori” are certainly among the so-called “Mashcos” massacred by Fitzcarrald, yet they would appear to bear nolinguistic relation to the Arawakan-speaking Mashco-Piro. Indeed, Gow (2006)tentatively identifies two separate “Mashco” groups: those along the Manu-Mishagua tour amazon watershed, likely Arawakan-speaking Mashco-Piro, and a secondgroup of uncertain linguistic affiliation (possibly Harakmbut, though Gow isskeptical) along the Cumerjali. In light of Matsigenka tour amazon oral histories, these latter were almost certainly the Harakmbut-speaking “Kogapakori” or Toyeri, a noto-riously warlike Harakmbut sub-group, formerly dominant along the upperMadre de Dios, assumed to have been driven to extinction.The last surviving Kogapakori (Toyeri) group in the Manu watershedconsisted of one man, his wife, and three sons, and they resided on a tributary of the Yomybato (Quebrada Fierro). To rebuild his group, this man beganraiding the Matsigenka of the upper Sotileja to capture young girls to raise andlater marry. He captured two girls, and killed many Matsigenka tour amazon during theraids. He had a reputation for fearlessness, bravery, and great skill at dodgingarrows in mid-flight. Finally, probably around 1950, the Matsigenka organizeda raid to eliminate the Kogapakori threat and recapture the Matsigenka tour amazon girls.The Kogapakori man and his three sons were killed in an early dawn raid,and his wife escaped into the forest where she subsisted, entirely alone, for many years before perishing: She could hunt with bow-and-arrow, and theMatsigenka found occasional traces (for example, finely made ceramic pots)of her solitary existence until as late as perhaps the 1970s. The Matsigenka girls who were rescued had learned the Kogapakori language, and the olderone bore a male child nicknamed “Mashco,” the fierce Kogapakori chief’s lastheir tour amazon  . These women remarried Matsigenka men, and the younger one, whodied in 1987 in Yomybato, taught a few words of the Kogapakori language toher children  tour amazon . Words such as apane  for jaguar are clearly of Harakmbut origin.Her Matsigenka husband, still alive, says the proper name for this group was“Aogyeri,” perhaps a deformation of “Eorieri,” which would appear to be theHarakmbut word for “people of the Madre de Dios (‘Eori’) river” (P. Lyon,personal communication by telephone, 2004). He considers these “Aogyeri” tobe identical with the near-extinct Toyeri tour amazon . Together, this evidence strongly suggests the presence of two culturally and linguistically distinctive indigenous groups in the upper Manu tour amazon at theoutset of the 20th century, both probably referred to as Maschos by contem-porary observers, and both of which were reduced almost to extinction by Fitzcarrald’s attacks  tour amazon. The Arawakan Mashco-Piro tour amazon  have certainly survivedthrough the present, abandoning agriculture and isolating themselves fromall outside contact. The Harakmbut-speaking “Aogyeri” (Toyeri) surviveduntil the 1950s, though recent events suggest the possible survival of an iso-lated Harakmbut-speaking group through the present  Piro tour amazon  .


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