Amazon Center

Amazon Center: Welcome to the Tambopata Reserve tours, one of the most extraordinary places in the Amazon Center . This beautiful peaceful paradise is located south-east of Peru and allowing visitors to soak up the amazing and special experiences that encloses the Amazon rainforest of Tambopata and sandoval lake, while the spy jaguars, harpy eagles fall in the chopped, the flight of the macaw and parrot clay licks and birds, otters are immersed in water and the natives of the area provide plenty of sustainable resources that nature provides them Amazon Center

This travel agency Manu Jungle Trips will let you know the history of the Tambopata Reserve, one of the most beautiful and iconic places where wildlife still exists within the Amazon Center

In Tambopata Reserve is the headwaters of the Amazon River fourteenth largest tributary: the mighty river Madeira, after 3,200 miles of route joins the Amazon Center , where it empties into the Atlantic Ocean.

The Amazon Center River is the longest river in the world, is the largest freshwater ecosystem of the world and contains one-fifth of the planet’s fresh water. This reserve is also located near Lake Titicaca in Puno, the highest navigable lake in the worldin the Amazon Center

The Amazon Center  makes up the largest rainforest on earth. Home to half of biodiversity, birds, insects and plants on the planet. The rainforests provide timber, fiber, food, fuel and medicines, but are unfortunately disappearing quickly because about 500,000 km2 have been cleared of increpulosos investors. It is known that if the rainforests disappear, excess carbon dioxide produced by the world’s industries, climate changes will affect the planet. Fortunately for the world, Tambopata Reserve is one of the moist lowland forests better protected from the Amazon Center to the present Amazon Center

An initial inventory driven by David Pearson in 1980 at the confluence of the rivers  Amazon Center and La Torre, reported a record for the number of animals, including 80 species of reptiles and amphibians, 533 species of birds, 77 varieties of mammals and 151 species of dragonflies and their derivatives. The Rapid Assessment Program, conducted in 1992 by the International Environmental Conservation confirmed that the area is extremely rich in diversity of species in Tambopata tours of many years of research led to say that there are 103 varieties of amphibians, 632 of birds, 169 mammals, 103 reptiles and 205 fish. These studies were conducted in fourteen different places in the region, seven of which were in areas of tourist accommodation. In this area of ​​Peru, have discovered new species of birds, leading to the conclusion that the existing inventory increase. In 2007, a new bird called the Rufous twist (Cnipodectes superrufus) was discovered Amazon Center

The innumerable variety of species in Amazon Center  has helped deemed to Peru as the country with the largest mega world as it hosts 10% of the species on earth. Many of these are unique to this area, as the poisonous toad biolat (Dendrobates biolat) woodpecker (Picumnus subtllls), the jungle fowl cacique (Cacicus koepckeae), the white-cheeked bird flycatcher (Poecilotriccus albifacies), the squirrel sanborn (Sciurus sanbornl), among others. Tours Tambopata is a stopover for many migratory birds, including the osprey (Pandlon hallaetus) and wide-brimmed harrier (winged Hawks).

CREATING A HAVEN FOR BIODIVERSITY TAMBOPATA TOURS:

The stories of the Amazon Center   Tambopata National Reserve and the National Book Bahuaja Sonene are intertwined. They form part of the National Natural Protected Areas System by (SINANPE) and are managed by the Institute of Natural Resources (Inrena), which in turn, since 2008, has been absorbed by the newly created Ministry of the Environment. The recognition of the importance of preserving protected BOTEareas began long ago, when naturalists and scientists first visited the region. Initially, in 1974, about 5 500 hectares to the Tambopata Reserve were recognized and build the first lodge was authorized in the region, the Explorer’s Inn. Later, in 1980, Conservation  International began lobbying for the area is declared National Park. The January 26, 1990, the government of Peru declared the Tambopata-Book as “protected area” and extends it to 1.5 million (one million five hundred thousand) acres, extending from the hills to Puno Madre de Dios River and incorporates the Amazon Center .

The decision to create a Amazon Center is not something to be taken lightly I take years for approval. The process is first declare reserve area, which is a temporary appointment, as the region is studied to see what type of permanent status will belong. In 1992, Conservation International sent a Rapid Assessment Team, in order to make a biological survey of the high Amazon Center of Tavara-Candamo and the region of the Pampas del Heath. They also organized many local, regional and national meetings to propose this as a Amazon Center

First, 1,996 in July, Bahuaja Sonene National Park, a third of the Amazon Center area was declared reserved by the President, Alberto Fujimori. This included the National Shrine of the Pampas del Heath, on the border with Bolivia, protecting the islands of grasslands surrounding this region, which do not exist in any other part of Peru. The name Bahuaja Sonene is given because the tribe Ese’eja, which lives in the area so I called the two major rivers crossing ancestral territory, the Amazon Center or Bahuaja in the native language, and Heath, or Sonene, also in the native language Amazon Center

Just before the park was declared intangible, a concession in Candamo river was awarded to the Mobil-Exxon Corporation, but conservationists said that this was “a real gem of Candamo and last land untouched by humans.” Long . campaign to counter the government’s decision Winitzky Daniel, famed conservationist, made the documentary began.: The Final Frontier, which received a massive ranking television history was three native Ese’eja during their journey through the Candamo This achieved. give the government to reverse course on that concession  Amazon Center.

After the documentary, there were many fears that the rest of the Reserve Tambopata tours the could use for the purpose of extracting oil, but in 2000 the entire Reserve was officially declared a “protected area” and removal companies Oil was considered a success. This achievement helped to stop the exploration and extraction of natural gas found underground Valley Candamo. Meanwhile, the Tambopata Tours National Reserve with an area of ​​274,690 hectares, located in the province Tambopata and Madre de God, was declared a protected area and the Reserve was incorporated the area of ​​1,091,416 hectares Valley Candamo which 70% is in the screed Tours Puno and the remaining 30% in the region of Madre God, it is then that the park becomes the Tambopata-National Reserve. The area along the Tambopata River and the road between Cusco and Puerto Maldonado, were declared “neutral zones”. People are allowed to live, grow and harvest the natural resources of the forests of the neutral zones Amazon Center .

The creation of this park is the efforts of local residents, private and nonprofit organizations. When this reserve was created, there was strong opposition from local people for fear that they prohibit use of natural resources and be encouraged against their subsistence activities. However, today, the people of the Book are enjoying the benefits, including eco-tourism that supports the region of Amazon Center

The location of the Tambopata Reserve:

The Tambopata National Reserve and Bahuaja Sonene National Park, bordering the Madidi National Park in Bolivia. All these parks are the Vilcabamba-Amboro an initiative of Conservation International to create a string of protected areas between Peru and Bolivia. The purpose of this corridor is that there is no separation of parks, for species that inhabit these areas are not isolated nor that reproduction is affected in the future. Amazon Center

All Tambopata River drainage is within the Tambopata-National Reserve and National Park-Sonene Bahuaja. Major tributaries in the upper Tambopata River, are Tavara river and Malinowski, and in the lower river La Torre. The Tambopata River at the confluence with the Malinowski River is wider and slower and winds along a riverbed, which sections may have more than five hundred meters wide. Then meanders downstream by a restricted course. Amazon Center

amazon lodge
amazon lodge

The Heath River marks the border between Bolivia and Peru and southern boundaries of the Tambopata-National Reserve and National Park-Sonene Bahuaja. Like the Tambopata River, the Heath River flows into the Madre de Dios river, the longest in the southeast of Peru, whose headwaters are in the region of Cusco and Manu National Park. All these rivers, which originate in the Andes are rich in sediments, so they are milky in color and are known in the Amazon Center as “white water rivers,” in contrast to “black water rivers” that originate in the woods, among rocks with few nutrients. Other tributaries of the great river Madre de Dios are the Palma Real and Briolo. During the rainy season most of the area is flooded, so access is by canals and ditches that lead to large rivers. Amazon Center

This protected area of ​​subtropical rainforest experiences two distinct seasons: dry and wet. Temperatures range from 10 ° C to 38 ° C, but is usually around 26 ° C. The extreme low temperatures are associated with rising currents northward from the Antarctic, known as “cold fronts”. The “cold fronts” can occur at any time between May and August, but are strongest in June and July. The hottest months are September and October, at the end of the dry season and temperatures often reach 38 ° C. These months can be foggy along the banks of the Tambopata River. It is known as “wet” season to the rainy season, which are the months between November and April. Dramatic thunderstorms increase the flow of rivers, which carry their trees and undergrowth step downstream. Amazon Center

HISTORY OF THE BOOK TOURS TAMBOPATA:

The first locations in Tambopata Tours:

It is unknown how long the natives have inhabited the area since the decay constant of the soil and the rapid growth of the wild vegetation have failed to obtain an archaeological fossil record. It is thought that South America was colonized about 13 000 years ago. Remains of stone tools and ceramics found in Manaus (Brazil) state that the first inhabitants of the Amazon appeared in the year 3000 BC

Satellite photos show images of pyramids on the north side of Madre de Dios, which appear to have inspired legends of all kinds, but expeditions have failed to find them Amazon Center.

Anthropologists suspect local Amazon Center the region has been inhabited by Ese’eja least the last three to four thousand years. Its territorial base was around Tambopata River and Heath River in Peru, and the Madidi and Beni rivers in Bolivia. Because the Europeans came to the area in search of rubber, Ese’eja fled to hide in other parts of the Amazon. The Ese’eja founded new settlements in which now live, using the forest in the same way as they have done for thousands of years Amazon Center.

The Inca Empire in the Amazon Center:

Amazon Center tribes lived there long before the Inca Empire would conform around 1200 AD The Inca Empire stretched from northern Ecuador to Bolivia and Chile. It was ruled by the Inca, who lived in Cusco, which was the capital of the Inca Empire or Tawantinsuyu. The Empire was divided into four regions, or regions: Antisuyo, Collaysuyo, Chinchaysuyo and Contisuyo. East of Cusco and the edge of the Andes, was the Antisuyo. The inhabitants of this region were known as the antis, whose word is believed to be derived the word “saloon”.

The eighth Inca, Viracocha, conquered the Vilcanota Valley, east of present Cusco, and began the conquest of the territories of the jungle. In the year 1440 AD, the Inca captured the town lies the current strength of Ollantaytambo (Sacred Valley of the Incas), which is strategically located before the entrance to the Amazon. It was the ninth Inca, Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, who undertook the largest campaigns of conquest in the Antisuyo and had built the fortresses of Ollantaytambo and Sacsayhuaman, Machu Picchu, to protect the Empire and its capital, Cusco, possible attacks Amazonian tribes. Pachacuti also mounted the first expedition in what is now the region of Madre de Dios and the Madre de Dios River, known to them as “Amaru Mayo”, or Snake River. Its fleet of rafts was constantly fighting the tribes of the Amazon Center, whom they called “redskins”. Following these bloody battles many tribes became part of the Inca Empire.

After the conquest, the Incas established alliances with the tribes of the Amazon Center. Many archers jungle tribes became part of the imperial army and exchanged arrowheads copper and bronze knives, textiles, timber, cocoa, vanilla, fish, wax, honey and animals, many products that offered them the Incas. The exchange must be substantial because the coat of arms shows a jaguar Cusco near a snake and a palm below chonta. The palm tree is a variety chonta spiny palm, whose wood is strong and hard, very important because in the Amazon is used to make bows, staves and various ornaments, because of its dark and mottled color. Also, the buds of leaves chonta or palm (which bears some resemblance to the studs) are used to prepare delicious dishes.

History of the Spanish invaders in the Inca Amazonia:

The Spanish invaders led by Francisco Pizarro and his brothers, Hernando, Gonzalo and Juan arrived at the Inca territory in 1526. After conquering the Empire, the Spaniards into the jungle in search of gold. In 1538, a Spanish named Pedro de Anzures made a major expeditions to find gold and silver supposedly were in the region of Carabaya, now part of the south side of Bahuaja-Sonene National Park. His armed force was composed of 300 Spaniards and 8000 slaves. As future Spanish expeditions that ventured in tropical forests, soon sank into a desperate battle for survival. A few weeks after his departure, the expedition was attacked by wild tribes. Then they finished the food they had brought as ignorant which plants, fruits and roots were edible, they were dying for various diseases and pests. Six months later, only half of the expedition survived. Amazon Center

In February 1541, Gonzalo Pizarro, brother of Francisco Pizarro, accompanied by Francisco de Orellana, left Quito to the Amazon in search of Inca gold, following the rumor that there was El Dorado, a city full of gold and precious stones. His expedition was composed of 350 Spaniards, 4000 Indians, 2000 pigs and many dogs. However, by the end of 1541, almost the entire expedition had died and they had no provisions. The only alternative left was to build a boat out of the jungle in search of food. The December 23, 1541, Orellana left by the great  Amazon Center River with some men, while Slate returned to Quito. Finally, on June 3, 1542, Orellana arrived at the Atlantic Ocean.

The forest was seen by the Spanish as an inhospitable place. Despite the stories that were cities full of gold and precious stones, as Païtiti near the Beni River in Bolivia, and El Dorado, in Peru, remained forgotten and the jungle became the background, until the appearance of the rubber boom.

The rubber boom in the Amazon Inca:

In 1743, the French scientist Charles-Marie de la Condamine, established an expedition to solve the controversy on the exact way it was land and headed for the jungle. When he got was amazed by tropical forests. There he observed the sap out of the trees, with which the natives manufactured rubber shoes. That substance was struck and brought to Europe. Later proved how useful it could be for multiple uses.

In 1839, Charles Goodyear discovered the vulcanization process. Soon, Dunlop invented the pneumatic rubber tires for vehicles. In 1841, about thirty-one tons of rubber were exported from the Inca  Amazon Center. Later, in 1880, eight thousand tons were extracted and the next ten years exports doubled. In 1900, twenty-seven thousand tons were exported and an end is not visualized.

A mid-eighteenth century, companies began to emerge claiming ownership rights of the forest, where forests of rubber trees were. The “tappers” camping in the jungle, regardless of the rain falling for six consecutive months. The work was hard and the pay was low, so labor became scarce. As a result, they began to bring slaves from Africa and China.

The success of rubber renewed interest in the Inca Amazon Center . In 1861, Colonel Faustino Maldonado mounted an expedition to cross the Madre de Dios River. After struggling with different tribes and map all along the river, Faustino Maldonado drowned in the falls and rapids of the Madeira River. In recognition of his exploration, the city located at the confluence of the Madre de Dios and Tambopata rivers, established after his death, bears his name: Puerto Maldonado, capital of Madre de Dios.

To promote this remote region of Tambopata tours, the Peruvian government began to grant concessions for companies that can build roads, bridges and river ports. As a result, in 1896, the Mining Company mine United States purchased the mining rights to a gold mine north of the river Inambari and was granted two million acres along the Tambopata River, provided way to build an mules from Tirapata to Puerto Markham (the highest navigable point of the river Tambopata). In 1908, the road was completed allowing extracting rubber Madre de Dios area. In 1909, were extracted for export 293 tons of rubber in comparison with the 13 tons were mined in 1902. Since then, exploration levels also increased Amazon Center

In the early nineteenth century, due to the shortage of manpower in the area, the companies had concessions for the exploitation of rubber created a system to retain cheap labor by never-ending debt. Once the rubber was hired, the company ahead of him clothes, food and some money to start collecting rubber. In return, the rubber had to sign a contract in which they agreed to work for a year with the company until his debt was canceled completely. But companies had ensured that the interests of the loans were high enough so that they could not pay. Native and non-native, viewed as the only solution to your problem escape to other places, but the companies sent to search and returned to the camps, where they were publicly flogged. So the cost of pursuit and capture was added to existing debt. Finally, in May 1913, a group of a hundred warriors Ese’eja, tired of the abuse, killed four employees of the rubber companies. Panic spread and Rubber Company owners viewed Tambopata impossible to continue with their work, so they had to close. Abruptly, the extraction of rubber in the collapse area and the boom came to an end. People’s lives rubber tapping earned, began to live or chestnut harvesting Brazil nuts and pioles wildlife trade Amazon Center

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