Peru Amazon Tours 3 days /2 nights

¿WHAT WE EXPECT?

Peru Amazon Tours Rainforest

Peru Amazon Tours provide an opportunity to connect with the natural world in an unparalleled way. Whether you’re an adventurer, nature enthusiast, or cultural explorer, these tours offer a chance to create lasting memories while discovering the enchanting beauty and hidden treasures of the Amazon Rainforest in Peru.

  • Length: 3 days/2 nights  in the Rainforest  Peru Tours;
  • Type of service: Private or Group in theTours;
  • Location: Southern Peru,  Manu National Park, Manu Peruvian Jungle,
  • Activities: parrot’s clay-lick, flora & fauna, Tours Rainforest , lodge, jungle trips, Hot Spring, Machuwasi lake, Night Activity ;
  • Altitude: 400 – 3,600 m.a.s.l.
  • Best time to visit: May – December
  • Departure: Every day
  • Minimum of participants in the amazon : 2 paxs
  • Maximum of participants  in the trip peru: 8 paxs
  • Price per person: USD

DETAILED TOUR ITINERARY:

 Peru Amazon Tours 3 days  2 nights


Tour Day 1: Tours  Cusco Ninamarca Paucartambo – Cloud Forest – Pilcopata Lodge – peruvian  Amazonia  travel .

Today, we will pick you up early from your hotel in Cusco. During our Peru Amazon Tours, we will make important stops at various points. Our first stop is Ninamarca, a highly appreciated place where we observe pre-Incan tombs called “chullpas” from the Lupaca culture. We then continue to Paucartambo, a well-known colonial

town with narrow streets and a beautiful church, where local people still maintain their ancient customs. Afterward, we ascend to Acjanaco Pass (3,550 meters above sea level), considered the entrance to Manu National Park.

At Tres Cruces de Oro viewpoint (3,700 meters above sea level), we have the opportunity to admire the stunning view of the Amazon basin.

From there, we begin descending into the heart of the Manu jungle, passing through the elfin forest and then the cloud forest. We make stops along the way to explore and take short walks, experiencing the incredible

biodiversity of the Puna Grassland. With some luck, we may encounter the Andean fox, gray-tailed deer, and if we’re fortunate, even the Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus).

Continuing our journey in the transportation,

we observe the various ecosystems and ecological levels found in these open forests, epiphyte forests, and enjoy breathtaking views.

In this forest, we encounter a great diversity of species, including the iconic Peruvian national bird, the Andean cock-of-the-rock. Visitors will be amazed by the beautiful display of the male birds during their lek. We also have

the chance to see the woolly monkey, spectacled bear, and other exotic bird species such as toucans, golden-headed quetzals, crested quetzals, and trogons, showcasing their vibrant colors. As for flora, we observe ferns,

lichens, bromeliads, and orchids such as Odontoglossum, Epidendrum Pachyphyllum, Stelis, and Scaphyglottis.

In the afternoon, we arrive at our lodge, Pilcopata Inn (700 meters above sea level). There, we freshen up with a refreshing bath and enjoy a delicious dinner. Afterward, we rest in our private rooms at the Peru Amazon Tours lodge.

Tours Day 2:   Atalaya Port – Rainforest  Walk  and  Hot Springs – Machuwasi Lake – Amazon Tours .


After enjoying breakfast, we will continue our journey in private transportation for approximately one and a half hours to the main port called Atalaya (500 meters above sea level). There, we will board our outboard boat to continue our trip along the Madre de Dios River. As we navigate the river and its rocky shores, we will observe

wildlife such as birds, capybaras (known as ronsoco), turtles, and sunbathing charapas (giant river turtles) on the beaches or fallen logs. Upon arriving at the lodge, we will be accommodated in our respective rooms. We will then explore the primary forests to observe a great diversity of species, including tarantulas, ants, butterflies, various monkey species, towering trees, exotic plants, and palm trees.

After this activity, we will return to the lodge for a delicious lunch. We will have a brief break to enjoy a refreshing bath in the hot springs or simply relax at the lodge. In the afternoon, we will visit Machuwasi Lake on wooden

rafts. At the lake, we will explore and observe a diverse range of animal species, including the prehistoric bird known as the hoatzin, reptiles, caimans, insects, groups of turtles, capybaras, armadillos, and sloths.

After this walk, our Peru Amazon tour will be unforgettable. We will return to the lodge to enjoy a delicious dinner. Later, we will engage in a nocturnal activity to appreciate other species such as monkeys, insects, birds, frogs, toads, and other animals.

Finally, we will return to the lodge to rest in our comfortable rooms with bathrooms and showers available.

Tour Day 3:
Amazon Rainforest Lodge to Parrot Clay Lick – Port Atalaya – Return to Cusco City to Amazon Tours


Today, we will start our day very early, awakened by the melodious songs of birds. Afterward, we will hop onto a motorboat and cruise down the Alto Madre de Dios River for approximately 25 minutes. Along the way, we will prepare ourselves for a remarkable sight—the clay lick where parrots, parakeets, and macaws gather every

morning to feed on the salty clay found on the river’s edge. Our knowledgeable guide will provide fascinating insights into this behavior, making it an unforgettable experience. We will then return to the lodge for a delicious breakfast.

After breakfast, we will pack our belongings and head to the port to board our outboard boat. We will make our way back to the main Atalaya port, where a private vehicle will be waiting to transport us back to the city of Cusco. The estimated arrival time in Cusco is between 6:00 pm and 6:30 pm,

IMPORTANT!!


You need to be vaccinated against Yellow Fever as well as to bring some anti-malaria tablets with you!!

Highlights of a typical tour: A typical Manu trip starts from Cusco at 3,300 m.a.s.l., crosses the last Andean mountain range, drops down the eastern slope of the Andes into the lowland  forests tours , and returns by air  

from the frontier town of Puerto Maldonado to Lima or Cusco. Cusco is a major hub for exploring  tours Inca culture, most famously at the ruins of Machu Picchu, and for adventure sports (so there is plenty to interest a

non‑birding spouse!). On the first day of a trip amazon, birders usually visit the wetlands of Huacarpay, 30-

minute drive from Cusco, the ancient Inca capital of  manu jungle trips,  tours where Andean waterfowl and marshbirds abound.

 

Review Peru Amazon Tours 3 days /2 nights.

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WHAT TOUR SERVICES:

Included in the Peru Tours:

  • A professional naturalist tour guide;
  • Motorboat transportation;u
  • Private vehicle land transportation;
  • Meals: 2 Breakfasts, 3 Lunches, 2 Dinners, and drinking water (Please note: vegetarian option availableupon request for no extra cost!)
  • Accommodation: 2 Nights in Lodges;
  • First aid kit, including a poison extractor, mosquito bite treatment and antidote for snake bites;
  • Life jacket;
  • Radio communications;
  • Rubber boots.
  • Hot Springs

Not included in the Peru Amazon:

  • Flights and airport departure taxes;
  • Travel insurance;
  • Vaccinations;
  • Breakfast on the first day and dinner on the last day;
  • Drinks;
  • Tips to local staff.

What to take with you to the Peru Amazon Tours :

  • Mosquito repellent (DEET 35 recommended as a MINIMUM!!),
  • Original passport,in thetrips amazon
  • Small backpack, for the  rainforest manu
  • Long-sleeved cotton shirts (preferably green coloured),
  • Long cotton trousers,
  • Long cotton socks (to be put into your trousers),
  • Comfortable walking shoes,
  • Sandals or light shoes,
  • Rain gear (e.g. rain poncho),
  • Swimsuit;
  • Binoculars (also available for rent),
  • Camera and charger,
  • Plastic bags to be used for clothes and camera,
  • A hat as a protection against the sun or rain,
  • Toiletries,
  • Small towel,
  • Toilet paper,
  • Antibacterial gel,
  • Sun cream,
  • Sunglasses,
  • Flashlight (with spare bulb and batteries),
  • Water bottle (1 litre as a minimum),
  • Pocket money (soles) to buy some beverages and souvenirs .

PHOTO GALLERY?

ABOUT LODGE:

About Us Lodge Peru in Reserve Manu Culture Zone

Discover in Peru the lodges that are within the Manu National Park

Frequently asked questions (FAQs):

MANU NATIONAL PARK

Highlights of a typical tour: A typical Manu Jungle trips starts from Cusco at 3,300 m.a.s.l., crosses the last Andean mountain range, drops down the eastern slope of the Andes into the lowland  forests tours , and returns by air from the frontier town of Puerto Maldonado to Lima or Cusco. Cusco is a major hub for exploring  tours Inca culture, most famously at the ruins of Machu Picchu, and for adventure sports (so there is plenty to interest a non‑birding spouse!). On the first day of a trip amazon, birders usually visit the wetlands of Huacarpay, 30-minute drive from Cusco, the ancient Inca capital of Peru,  tours where Andean waterfowl and marshbirds abound. Here the beautiful Bearded Mountaineer Oreonympha nobilis,  a restricted‑range species in this trips  tours  endemic to southern Peru, can be seen feeding, as indicated on the map of the Manu tours Biosphere Reserve, showing location of lodges peru mentioned in the article 51 neotropical birding 5 on tree tobacco. (For a taste of this splendid hummingbird, see Joe Tobias’s photospot in Neotropical Birding 2: 83–85.) The endemic Rusty‑fronted Canastero Asthenes ottoni is also found here in amazon tours . The route then proceeds to the humid eastern Andean slopes where the grasslands at Ajcanacu Pass at 3,500 m hold high‑altitude tinamous, the recently described Diademed Tapaculo Scytalopus schulenbergi and Scribble‑tailed Canastero Asthenes maculicauda at its northernmost limit. The stunted elfin forest  along the roadside hosts several tanagers, flowerpiercers and the restricted‑range Puna Thistletail Schizoeaca helleri, found nowhere else in the reserve in this trips amazon .

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Peru Amazon Tours :

The first thing visitors can see is the archeological site Chullpas de Ninamarca (pre-Incan tombs) still located in the Andean highlands manu  . Later on, you will pass through a cloud forest amazon tours, which is a warmer zone that appears as a thick veil of clouds located in the entrance of the Manu National Park  . Then you will continue deeper into the jungle tours until you reach the lowlands of the Manu Cultural Zone. The park covers an area of 20,000 km2 of Peru and is considered to be one of the best places of South America to see tropical wildlife  tours !!! The Peru Amazon Tour  shows you a huge variety of animals (almost 50%) that cannot be seen in any other place in the world in peru amazon tours !!

MANU JUNGLE TRIPS – TOUR OPERATOR

Manu National Park  tours   was founded in 1973 on a profound contradic-tion tour amazon tours peru : The “untouchable” core area is, in fact, the homeland of a large indigenous population, including the Matsigenka  tours peru  (Machiguenga)tour amazon tour peru  .Some view the Westernization of native communities living in pro-tected areas as a threat to biodiversity tours conservation and suggest that such populations should be enticed to resettle outside parks tour amazon. Here, we present an overview of the indigenous populations of Manu tour , outline the history of the park and its anthropological policies, and discuss evolving park-Matsigenka amazon tours conflicts as well as areas of commoninterest tours. Analysis reveals that resettlement has no political, legal, or practical viability. Thus, given the options available tours amazon, we propose that long-term biodiversity tour amazon conservation can best be achieved through a enure for defense” trade: indigenous communities receive explicit benefits (e.g., infrastructure and service investments, employment opportunities, or economic alternatives such as ecotourism) inexchange for helping to defend the park against incursion and managing vulnerable resources such as game animals. KEYWORD Sbiodiversity conservation, ecotourism tours human-inhabited protected areas, indigenous rights, Manu National Park, park tours amazon management, Peru, subsistence hunting tours  .

WHOSE PARADISE? A BRIEF HISTORY OF MANU AND ITS NATIVE POPULATIONS.

In films, popular books, websites, and tourist pamphlets, Manu NationalPark tours amazon is often portrayed as a remote “paradise  without human interference”or a “Living Eden” where nature flourishes in all its primordial splendor(MacQuarrie, 1992). Though remarkably rich in wildlife, Manu tours amazon is anythingbut free from human interference. The human history of Manu, in the tours Madrede Dios basin and the adjacent Urubamba-Ucayali region tours amazon , spans at leastthree millennia (Huertas & Garcia, 2003). Archeological studies of ceramics,textile technology, stone axes, rock art, and other ancient remains suggest acontinuous though dynamic occupation by four predominant cultural tours amazon peru     linguisticgroups—Arawakan, Panoan, Harakmbut, and Tacana—from pre-Colombiantimes through the present. Lowland Amazonian groups of the regionengaged in long-distance trade with Andean populations since at least Incatimes (Lathrap, 1973; Myers, 1981) with copper tools, precious metals, jewelry,and other goods of Andean manufacture being exchanged for lowlandproducts such as tobacco, resins, smoked meat, animal skins, and birdfeathers (Camino, 1977). Inca roads extended into the Cosñipata region(Madre de Dios headwaters) tours , where the Inca and later, the Spanish main-tained coca

 

plantations, gold mines, and trading posts. Pre-Colombian traderoutes in Madre de Dios tour amazon  may have reached as far east as the Tambopata River (Lyon, 1981). Nonetheless, the Inca were unsuccessful in conqueringthe Amazonian lowlands tour amazon , and direct Inca rule never extended far beyondthe Andean foothills.Spanish explorers and Catholic missionaries engaged in trade andattempted to subjugate Amazonian tour amazon  peoples starting in the late 16th century (Camino, 1977). By the middle of the 17th century, indigenous populationsthroughout Amazonia tour amazon had suffered demographic and political collapse dueto the rapid spread of smallpox and other European diseases (Myers, 1988;Denevan, 1992). The capture of women and child slaves was already anelement of Amazonian inter-group warfare prior tour amazon to the Conquest. In thepost-Conquest reconfiguration, surviving riverine groups raided weaker groupsfrom the hinterlands, capturing children to be sold at distant market townsas agricultural laborers, domestic servants, or Christian converts tour amazon. Nonetheless,the Spanish encountered great difficulties in conquering, occupying, andsubjugating remote montaña (upland rainforest) regions, with their impene-trable forests, fast-flowing rivers of difficult navigation, and resistant localpopulations. In 1742, the messianic leader Juan Santos Atahuallpa gainedthe support of Arawakan populations and led an uprising that expelled theSpanish from the Ucayali-Urubamba basin for over a century (Santos-Granero,2002). Spanish explorers had even less success in the Madre de Dios basin, where repeated expeditions starting in the late 17th century were destroyedby Indian attacks, treachery among rival Spanish leaders, and calamities inthe fierce rapids (MacQuarrie, 1992). Manu and Madre de Dios basinsremained isolated and devoid of a definitive tour amazon  presence through thelate 19th century.For its indigenous inhabitants, the enchantments of the remote, isolatedforests of the Manu region were finally and brutally dispelled by the RubberBoom or “fever of rubber” from 1895 to 1917. Charles Goodyear’s discovery in 1839 of vulcanization and Dunlop’s subsequent invention of the pneumatictire fueled a drastic increase in demand for Amazonian rubber. Peru’slowland rain forests  tour amazon  were suddenly teeming with entrepreneurs (“rubberbarons”) and their local guides in search of rubber trees and cheap labor. Existing patterns of slave trading and inter-ethnic violence rose to a feverishpitch. Dominant tribes of the Ucayali region such as the Piro, Shipibo, and Ashaninka—already engaged in trade—served as guides in locating rubber-rich forests tour amazon and enslaving local indigenous labor. In 1896, the infamous“King of Rubber,” Carlos Fermín Fitzcarrald (Reyna, 1941), employed 200rubber tappers and a thousand native guides of the Ucayali River basin toportage a small steamship across the narrow land passage, now known asthe Isthmus of Fitzcarrald, separating the upper Mishagua River tour amazon (a tributary of the Urubamba) from the upper Manu River (tributary of the Madre deDios River) tour amazon, thus opening up a vast region that had hitherto been inac-cessible to rubber exploitation and European colonization more generally. Accompanied by a flotilla of native guides in canoes, Fitzcarrald’s force was attacked by fiercely resistant native inhabitants known as the “Maschos.”Fitzcarrald lost 50 men, and in retaliation mounted a vicious counter-attack,killing some 300 Mashcos, burning their houses and gardens, and destroy-ing their canoes. tour amazon  A witness of the fierce battle described the carnage: “Youcould no longer drink the water from the river because it was so full of thecorpses of Mashcos and rubber tappers, because the fight was to the death”(Reyna, 1941, cited in MacQuarrie, 1992, p. 59).Punitive and slave-capturing raids known as “ correrías ” (Camino, 1977)brought dislocation and devastation to indigenous populations who soughtto flee the rubber camps or resist intruders. In addition to the violence they perpetrated, rubber tappers also brought new epidemics of exotic illnessessuch as malaria, measles, and influenza. Native populations who werepressed into labor in the rubber camps were subjected to poor health and working conditions. Von Hassel (1904, p. 244) estimates that 60% of the native workers in the Manu tour amazon River rubber camps died of disease or malnutrition.Despite international protests about the atrocities, and denunciationsthat were considered before British courts and the U.S. Congress (Hardenburg,1912; U.S. House of Representatives, 1913), it was not until after the collapseof international rubber prices—due to the rise of Malaysian plantation rubber— that slave trading and genocide practiced against native Amazonians tour amazon finally started to diminish. After 1917, Manu was abandoned even by the Catholicpriests who had established a mission at  tour amazon San Luis del Manu. However, thesame routes and techniques used during the rubber boom continued toprovide indigenous slaves for the hacienda plantation economy, loggingenterprises, and domestic service in Peruvian cities at least until the 1950s(Zarzar & Roman, 1983; Alvarez-Lobo, 1996). Many native populations only managed to survive these grim times by isolating themselves from allcontact with peoples outside their group, cutting themselves off from centuries-old networks of inter-ethnic trade. Some groups even abandoned agricultureand adopted a nomadic, hunting-and-gathering lifestyle to avoid being detectedand captured. Several indigenous groups of the Manu and adjacent regionsremain isolated and hostile to outsiders today. Far from the popular notionof isolated indigenous peoples as being “innocent savages,” unspoiled by contact with civilization, the isolated indigenous groups of Manu and Madrede Dios regions tour amazon  today are anything but “uncontacted”; instead, they arethemselves refugees from the violence of a global economy.In the 1960s, the rich resources of the Manu basin once again attractedthe attention of traders in timber and animal pelts, as well as human souls.Sawmills were established on the lower Manu to exploit the rich reserves of fine hardwoods such as cedro ( Cedrela odorata L.) and mahogany ( Swieteniamacrophylla King). Hunters also plied the lakes and forests of the Manubasin seeking jaguars, giant river otters, caiman, and other animals with valu-able pelts or hides. Meanwhile, missionaries of the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) employed acculturated indigenous guides to contact isolated Matsigenka populations who had retreated to the headwater regions in theaftermath of the Rubber Boom.Celestino Malinowski, a taxidermist and naturalist of Polish descent who had explored the Madre de Dios region tour amazon  since childhood, becamealarmed by the indiscriminate logging and hunting. He began sendingletters to Peruvian authorities about the situation, and through a series of fortunate coincidences (see MacQuarrie, 1992, pp. 63–66), his advice wasfinally heeded, and tour amazon  Manu was declared a Reserve Zone in 1968, and finally a National Park in 1973. Loggers, hunters, and missionaries were expelledfrom the newly created park (see MacQuarrie, 1992; Terborgh, 1999). Firearmsand extractive economic activities were also prohibited, though indigenouspeoples were permitted to remain as long as they engaged in “traditional”subsistence activities tour amazon. A group of Piro-speaking people of mixed descent, who had lived on the Manu and worked in various extractive economies(rubber, logging, pelt hunting) since the Rubber Boom, moved downstreamand established new communities outside the park near the mouth of theManu River to avoid the new restrictions tour amazon.

 

THE INDIGENOUS INHABITANTS OF MANU, THEN AND NOW  :The linguistic, cultural, and territorial integrity of indigenous peoplesthroughout the Madre de Dios region tour amazon was disrupted during the RubberBoom, as some groups migrated from adjacent regions tour amazon, others were displacedor exterminated, and survivors were forced to intermarry or assimilate withother groups (Lyon, 1975). Furthermore, the nomenclature applied to indig-enous groups in historical sources has always been problematic. In somecases, a single term is applied to speakers of multiple languages or evenmembers of different language families (Lyon, 1975). Thus, our understandingof the human history of Manu Park is fragmentary and somewhat speculative . Mashco and Mashco-Piro The historical sources mention “Mashcos” on the upper Manu River tour amazon, whomFitzcarrald’s men came into conflict with and ultimately massacred. Theterm “Mashco” appears to have been originally a Conibo (Panoan) word,used as long ago as the late 17th century to refer to an indigenous tour amazon nation(possibly Piro) found on an eastern tributary of the Ucayali River (Alvarez-Lobo,1996, cited in Gow, 2006). Lyon (1975) locates the Mashco in the late 19thcentury in the Manu-Camisea-Mishagua watershed (i.e., the Isthmus of Fitzcarrald), describing them as a band of Arawakan-speaking Piro, known variably as Mashco, Piro-Mashco, and Mashco-Piro (cited in Gow). The term“Mashco” was originally used in Madre de Dios to refer to any isolated or warlike groups (Lyon, 1975). However, Dominican priests working in the Madre de Dios region tour amazon came to use Mashco as an ethnic denomination forthe Harakmbut-speaking Arasaeri and Amarakaeri (Califano, 1982), peoplesoriginally of the Colorado River (a Madre de Dios tributary) who are wholly unrelated to the Piro. To add to the confusion,

a short word list of dubi-ous origin for the “Mashco” language collected by Farabee (1922) in theManu-Mishagua watershed in 1907 contains a few words of apparently Harakmbut and a few of Piro origin (Lyon, 1975), contributing to the unlikely theory that Mashco-Piro was a hybrid language mixing Mashco (Harakmbutlanguage family) and Piro (Arawakan language family; see Gow). Becauseof such confusion, the Harakmbut (or Haté) languages (e.g., Amarakaeri, Arasaeri, Huachipaeri, Toyeri) were once erroneously assigned to the Arawakan language family (Lyon, 1975)tour amazon . Who were the Mashco massacred by Fitzcarrald, who essentially disap-peared from the ethnographic record for Manu tour amazon? Gow (2006), drawing onthese historical sources and an interpretation of the enigmatic data concern-ing the isolated indigenous peoples of Manu and adjacent areas, comes tothe conclusion that the Mashco were, in fact, the very same Mashco-Piro orPiro-Mashco, that is to say Arawakan speakers of a Piro dialect tour amazon. They weremassacred by Fitzcarrald’s men, and a few survivors fled to the forest, aban-doning agriculture and taking up a nomadic lifestyle tour amazon . Their descendents arealmost certainly the enigmatic Mashco-Piro (see Kaplan & Hill, 1984), hunter-gatherer nomads who shun all contact with outsiders. One Mashco-Pirogroup been known from the Pinquen River on the south bank of the Manu River tour amazon for decades. Three Mashco-Piro women emerged from isolation at thePark guard station of Pakitza tour amazon along the Manu River tour amazon in the 1970s, apparently fleeing from internal conflict within the group. These women, dubbed by local people as the “Three Marias,” later went to live in Matsigenka tour amazon and Pirocommunities on the Madre de Dios River along the park borders tour amazon . The Piro of the community of Diamante have confirmed that they speak a language ordialect that is close to Piro, but marked by numerous linguistic differences tour amazon . Moreover, the Piro, in their tireless efforts to contact the remaining, isolatedMashco-Piro, have communicated with and even temporarily captured Mashco-Piro individuals (see MacQuarrie, 1992; Gow). However the maingroup of the Mashco-Piro insist on maintaining their isolation tour amazon. Since the mid-1990s, a second group assumed to be Mashco-Piro has appeared on thenorth bank of the Manu tour amazon, apparently fleeing from incursions by petrochemi-cal companies and loggers on Rio de las Piedras (see Box 1).The Mashco-Piro nomads today are almost certainly descendents of these original occupants of the upper Manu tour amazon, decimated by Fitzcarrald’s attacksand forced to abandon agriculture and enter isolation. Yet were they theonly indigenous inhabitants of the upper Manu tour amazon at the time of the RubberBoom? Historical sources are ambiguous (see Gow, 2006), but an examina-tion of oral history suggests that at least one other group was present. TheMatsigenka people living today at Tayakome and Yomybato mention a time tour amazon,

Box 1 tour amazon : Isolated Indigenous Groups Today Anthropological studies carried out during the park’s creation indicated thepresence of numerous isolated indigenous groups tour amazon within the park’s bound-aries (d’Ans, 1972). The warlike Yora were contacted in the late 1980s,decimated by disease, and left park territories seeking better humanitarianassistance tour amazon. The remote Matsigenka tour amazon of the upper Sotileja and Cumerjali haveincreasingly emerged from isolation since 1990, also suffering from numer-ous respiratory epidemics. In 2004, a Polish film crew led by Jacek Palkiewicz entered park territories along the Piñi-Piñi River tour amazon, seeking thelegendary lost Inca city of Paititi, and in the process infected isolated Matsigenka tour amazon populations of the Piñi-Piñi and Mameria with severe respira-tory epidemics; a British film crew sconting for the ‘Mark & Olly’ series waslikewise blamed for an outbreak of colds among isolated Matsigenka tour amazon of theCumerjali (Shepard, 2008). Throughout the park’s history, no effectiveaction has been taken to prepare for the immediate health emergencies orlong-term consequences of such contact situations with isolated groups.There are still considerable numbers of isolated

indigenous peoples inManu Park. The Mashco-Piro nomads of the Rio Pinquen migrate through-out the south bank of the lower Manu tour amazon in close proximity to tour operationsand Westernized native communities along the Upper Madre de Dios River.Supported discreetly by SIL missionaries, indigenous Protestant convertsamong the Piro of the Ucayali and Madre de Dios regions tour amazon have aggressively sought to contact the Mashco-Piro for at least 15 yr. The Dominican missionof Shintuya has also made sporadic efforts to contact this group. Since 1996,clear evidence of hitherto unknown, isolated indigenous groups began toappear on the northern bank of the Manu river tour amazon . The arrival of these peopleseems to have coincided with large-scale seismic exploration initiated by Mobil Oil in the Rio de las Piedras, northeast of Manu Park tour amazon. Though loggersand missionaries had made exploratory trips to the Piedras basin since atleast 1990, their incursions increased greatly after Mobil relinquished theconcession in 1998. On one occasion, in the late 1990s, isolated natives shotarrows at tourist boats. In late 1999, carrying out an ethnobotanical survey close to Tayakome tour amazon, Shepard and Yu and their Matsigenka tour amazon guides weregiven warning calls by a party of isolated natives passing nearby (Shepard & Yu, 1999, cited in Huertas, 2002). More recently, with the explosion of ille-gal logging in the Madre de Dios province fueled by Brazil’s banning of mahogany exports, isolated indigenous groups have attacked tour amazon, and beenattacked by loggers working in the Piedras and adjacent areas, including theterritory of isolated indigenous groups near the border with Brazil (Huertas).Since 2002, isolated groups have encroached with increasing frequency and boldness on the territory of settled Matsigenka communities on theupper Manu tour amazon . They have taken metal implements and food from Matsigenkahouses, burned one Matsigenka house located far up a north-bank tributary stream (perhaps as a warning not to return to that region),and fired arrows as warning shots at groups of Matsigenka who inadvert-ently approached them. Clearly, this group or groups are fleeing from tur-moil in the Piedras area and seeking new territories within Manu Park tour amazon .The Matsigenka claim that encounters have occurred with two distinc-tive cultural groups, presenting different kinds of arrows and differentforms of bodily adornment tour amazon . One group is assumed to be Mashco-Piro of the Piedras, surely constituting a distinctive population from the Mashco-Piro of the Pinquen (Gow, 2006). The Matsigenka tour amazon   doubt the second groupis Panoan (i.e., relatives of the Yora) due to the forms of body ornamenta-tion and arrow-making styles. Some suggest that this second group may represent a final remnant of the Harakmbut-speaking Toyeri (“Aogyeri”),thought to have been wiped out in the 1950s (see Mashco and Mashco-Piro). One Matsigenka  tour amazon man says he encountered a group of four men atthe edge of his garden in the dry season of 2004, and exchanged, at a con-siderable distance, a few words of greeting in the Harakmbut tongue astaught to him by his deceased Kogapakori-speaking elderly relative.During the dry season in June 2005, a large group (perhaps as many as100) ofisolated people made a dramatic appearance at the biologicalresearch station of Cocha Cashu tour amazon , leading to

the evacuation of the station.The group migrated over a period of a few days towards Tayakome, wherethey repelled all attempts at approach or contact by Matsigenka community members with a hail of arrows. There, the group forded the Manu River tour amazon atthe mouth of Yomybato (Quebrada Fierro stream) and moved further intothe interior of the park towards the Sotileja River. The Matsigenka considerthis group to be Mashco-Piro  tour amazon. Never before had such a large and visiblemigration taken place, and the Matsigenka  tour amazon interpreted it as an indicationthat the Mashco-Piro group hoped to migrate on a more permanent basisto uninhabited territories in Manu Park, fleeing conflict with loggers in thePiedras basin. However, in August, a party of shotgun-wielding Yora whohad entered the park from the Mishagua headwaters (undetected by thepark of course, since no guard post exists there) encountered this groupnear the mouth of the Sotileja River. In the ensuing conflict, the Yora firedgunshots and wounded or perhaps killed at least one Mashco.This worrisome scenario summons a profound sensation of déja-vu,considering the Yora tragedy of the mid-1980s, likewise provoked by pet-rochemical, logging, and missionary penetration. Despite this experience,and despite a tremendous growth in the park’s funding and personnel inthe 1990s, little has changed in terms of the park’s capacity to respond tohealth emergencies and conflict situations associated with the contact of isolated indigenous populations. The park badly needs to establish con-trol posts along the Isthmus of Fitzcarrald, negotiate with the Matsigenkaand tour amazon Yora populations to establish norms of conduct to avoid such con-flicts, and set aside “no-go” zones for isolated populations to transit, espe-cially during the dry season when migrations are most common probably before the beginning of the 20th century, when the Matsigenkamaintained friendly relations with a group they refer to as Kogapakori, ageneric Matsigenka term for all hostile groups tour amazon, but whom the modern Matsigenka tour amazon equate with the Harakmbut-speaking Toyeri. The Kogapakori were considered the dominant group, and so Matsigenka families sometimesallowed a son to be raised by the them to learn the language. The large num-ber of Harakmbut loan words (especially animal, plant, and craft names) in thedialect of Matisgenka spoken in Manu Park tour amazon bear testimony to this history of cultural contact. The last such Kogapakori-raised, Kogapakori-speaking Matsi-genka, essentially the patriarch of the Tayakome-dwelling Matsigenka, died asa very old man in Tayakome in the 1980s. Fragments of Kogapakori vocabu-lary passed on to younger relatives are clearly Harakmbut in origin. Accordingto stories passed on by this man, the whites massacred the Kogapakori on the Manu River tour amazon at the tributary Kapiroshampiato (up-river from modernTayakome), and the survivors fled to the middle and upper Cumerjali River,the next major down-river tributary, where they were joined by other mem-bers of the same group fleeing warfare and epidemic diseases elsewhere in theMadre de Dios basin (P. Lyon, personal communication, January 27, 2007, alsomentions Huachipaeri oral histories of a small Toyeri group that crossed fromthe east bank of the Madre de Dios  into the Manu tour amazon watershed in the mid-20thcentury). However, the Kogapakori population at Cumerjali was massacredonce again by whites several years later. According to another piece of oralhistory, the whites were aided in this second massacre by vengeful Matsigenka guides tour amazon  whose family members had been attacked and killed by the Kogapa-kori on the upper Sotileja. These “Kogapakori” are certainly among the so-called “Mashcos” massacred by Fitzcarrald,

yet they would appear to bear nolinguistic relation to the Arawakan-speaking Mashco-Piro. Indeed, Gow (2006)tentatively identifies two separate “Mashco” groups: those along the Manu-Mishagua tour amazon watershed, likely Arawakan-speaking Mashco-Piro, and a secondgroup of uncertain linguistic affiliation (possibly Harakmbut, though Gow isskeptical) along the Cumerjali. In light of Matsigenka tour amazon oral histories, these latter were almost certainly the Harakmbut-speaking “Kogapakori” or Toyeri, a noto-riously warlike Harakmbut sub-group, formerly dominant along the upperMadre de Dios, assumed to have been driven to extinction.The last surviving Kogapakori (Toyeri) group in the Manu watershedconsisted of one man, his wife, and three sons, and they resided on a tributary of the Yomybato (Quebrada Fierro). To rebuild his group, this man beganraiding the Matsigenka of the upper Sotileja to capture young girls to raise andlater marry. He captured two girls, and killed many Matsigenka tour amazon during theraids. He had a reputation for fearlessness, bravery, and great skill at dodgingarrows in mid-flight. Finally, probably around 1950, the Matsigenka organizeda raid to eliminate the Kogapakori threat and recapture the Matsigenka tour amazon girls.The Kogapakori man and his three sons were killed in an early dawn raid,and his wife escaped into the forest where she subsisted, entirely alone, for many years before perishing: She could hunt with bow-and-arrow, and theMatsigenka found occasional traces (for example, finely made ceramic pots)of her solitary existence until as late as perhaps the 1970s. The Matsigenka girls who were rescued had learned the Kogapakori language, and the olderone bore a male child nicknamed “Mashco,” the fierce Kogapakori chief’s lastheir tour amazon  . These women remarried Matsigenka men, and the younger one, whodied in 1987 in Yomybato, taught a few words of the Kogapakori language toher children  tour amazon . Words such as apane  for jaguar are clearly of Harakmbut origin.Her Matsigenka husband, still alive, says the proper name for this group was“Aogyeri,” perhaps a deformation of “Eorieri,” which would appear to be theHarakmbut word for “people of the Madre de Dios (‘Eori’) river” (P. Lyon,personal communication by telephone, 2004). He considers these “Aogyeri” tobe identical with the near-extinct Toyeri tour amazon . Together, this evidence strongly suggests the presence of two culturally and linguistically distinctive indigenous groups in the upper Manu tour amazon at theoutset of the 20th century, both probably referred to as Maschos by contem-porary observers, and both of which were reduced almost to extinction by Fitzcarrald’s attacks  tour amazon. The Arawakan Mashco-Piro tour amazon  have certainly survivedthrough the present, abandoning agriculture and isolating themselves fromall outside contact. The Harakmbut-speaking “Aogyeri” (Toyeri) surviveduntil the 1950s, though recent events suggest the possible survival of an iso-lated Harakmbut-speaking group through the present  Piro tour amazon  .


MANU NATIONAL PARK RESERVE CENTER .

The Manu Biosphere Reserve is one of the most pristine areas of wildlife the Amazon Peru, which is found in the Manu River in the park. No activities such as hunting or fishing are performed here. This Reserve is very strictly controlled and visitors are only allowed to visit with their tickets and the guides with their professional card s especially with its operator agency of the Manu National Reserve. During your entire time in the park, you will be accompanied by your guide, from your departure from the city of Cusco until your return to the city of Cusco. Tours to Manu National Park must be organized in advance in order to avoid any problems with your departure for the Manu tour.

LOCATION EXTENSION AND ZONES OF MANU NATIONAL PARK

Manu National Park is located in the southern part of Peru in the departments of Madre de Dios and Cusco Province. It occupies territories of the districts of Fitzcarralt of the province of Manu and district of Challabamba and Qosñipata of the province of Paucartambo. It comprises all the the Manu River basin and the left bank of the Madre de Dios River; the park lies 65% in the department of Madre de Dios and 35% in the department of Cusco.

THE MANU NATIONAL PARK HAS THREE ZONES

The Core or Natural Zone: This zone covers an area of 1,532,806 hectares and is the indigenous territory where the land is still used in traditional ways, without any restrictions for native groups, where tourists and any other foreign person may not enter without authorization from the headquarter of Manu National Park.
The Reserved Zone: This zone consists of an area of 257,000 hectares dedicated to tourism and to researchers with a rational treatment of resources.
The Transitional or Cultural Zone of Manu National Park: This zone covers an area of 91,394 hectares where the colonists and some indigenous communities of Machiguengas are found, forming a buffer zone in the core of the Manu National Park, where there are no restrictions on economic activities, as can be seen in our maps. The three areas that make up the Manu National Reserve contains 13 different ecological zones ranging in altitude from 200 m to 4,000 m, meaning that it has an incredible variety of flora and fauna.
Excursions to Manu National Park are expensive. However, it is sometimes possible to get discounts on official prices. If an agency has a fixed departure for a day or two and if it still has spaces, it may be willing to offer a lower price. Our departure dates are fixed for this 2017 (If you have a desired date for a tour to Manu, we need a deposit of 50 %, minimum of 2 people, maximum of 10 people. You can make your reservation with our company Manu Jungle Trips.)

*The international companies operate in the Manu Reserve with their own land and river transportation and have their own land and lodges that leave no income for the communities and indigenous peoples who for years and centuries have kept this reserve in their natural habitat. Today only some agencies try to work along with them giving income and generating work for the local population inside and outside the Manu National Park Reserve.

Peru Amazon Tours

In addition to its vibrant wildlife, Manu is also home to indigenous communities that have inhabited these lands for generations. Engage with these communities and learn about their rich cultural heritage, customs, and traditional practices, gaining a deeper understanding of their harmonious relationship with the natural world.

A tropical jungle with exuberant vegetation, walk in the depths to observe the Amazonian wild fauna and flora in the Amazon Tours.

Peru Tours Manu Park

that extends throughout the Peruvian territory. Located in the eastern part of the country, the Peruvian Amazon is one of the most diverse ecosystems and fascinating world. During this trip and through the tours of the Peruvian Amazon, visitors will have the opportunity to immerse themselves in a natural and impressive world. Navigating through the very meandering rivers and which is surrounded by dense vegetation, where you can explore and spot an incredible variety of different species of plants, animals and tropical birds. in wildlife such as monkeys, capybaras, deer, armidillo, turtle, tapir, jaguar, anacondas and countless birds, the region’s biodiversity will leave you amazed

Best Tours Relations in Peru

S/. /pax 4 days / 3 night

Amazon Nature Ayahuasca trips

Amazon Nature Ayahuasca. On your 4-day Ayahuasca trip, you will have the opportunity to experience this ancient ceremony with the guidance of a jungle shaman, an expert in the traditions of Ayahuasca.

S/. $ 00/pax 04 days / 03 night

Manu Peruvian Trip, Manu Jungle Wildlife

Expedición al Manu durante 4 días – Durante este tour tendremos la oportunidad de conocer la selva las selva tropical el bosque primario y secundario donde habitan una biodiversidades de especies -descendiendo desde los 3900 metros hasta los 600 metros -son diferentes eco sitemas de bosques

S/. /pax 05 days / 04 night

Amazon Peru, Trip Wildlife Expeditions

Manu Wildlife Center. During this tour, visitors will have the opportunity to explore the Amazon jungle and experience wildlife in its natural habitat.